Throughout time, different civilizations arose and fell. These deeply impacted the shape of the world thereafter. Taking a closer look at the major empires help us understand the change process better. Some of them started small and then grew bigger, others arose after a long fall, but all had the dream of expansion and leaving a legacy behind.
The Persian Empire used the Babylonian and Assyrian model as their example to build their own civilization. The empire tremendously grew by conquering many lands between Egypt and India to encompass a wide spectrum of religions, cultures, and languages. It was ruled by an absolute monarchy. The monarch exercised full authority on the whole empire and dominated through an intricate administrative system of officials and local authorities. He also had a spy system to constantly report important events back to him as soon as they happened. The empire supported local religious cults in order to gain the favor of the invaded lands. They were also remarkable in embracing any new thing from these countries and making it their own. The monarch had a very advanced postal system that could carry messages on horses across this huge empire with great efficiency. The wealth and power of this kingdom was shown in its elaborate palaces, monuments, audience halls, and carvings. In comparison, the Greek civilization was made up of small, competing city-states with a population only a fraction of the Persian one. High mountains and steep valleys split the Greek empire into small independent city-states; in contrast to the Persian Empire which was a one and united entity. Since there wasn’t much diversity in these city-states they all shared the same religion and language. These independent nations didn’t do much to end their inner conflicts. Unlike the Persians they did not invade any neighboring lands but built settlements all around the Mediterranean area and the Black sea. Settlers infiltrated these new sights with their own cultures and they did not take much of these places’ cultures.
The two civilizations collided with each other and started a war. The Athenians came to the aide of the Greeks, who surprisingly won the war in the last battle (Battle of Marathon). It was embarrassing for the Persians to lose but their empires stability was not affected. On the other hand, this victory was the pride and joy of Athens and led to great changes in the Athenian democracy. The soldiers of the poor classes insisted on their full citizenship rights, so in the fifty years that followed this war showed a great increase in democracy and an uprise of the Greek culture. Athens tried to rule the other city-states following this victory which led to great resentment and a civil war broke out. This weakened the Greek Empire and paved the way to the Macedonian takeover. The Greco-Persian war was the start of the ongoing conflict between the west and the east.
In the neighboring Italy, the Roman Empire began as a small and...