The MMPI-2-RF normal sample is the same used to standardize the MMPI-2 minus the emphasis on gender; no new norms were collected for the MMPI-2-RF. The nongendered MMPI-2-RF normative sample is made up of 1,138 men and 1,138 women from the normative sample of the MMPI-2. Analysis of T scores based on gendered versus nongendered norms showed no advantages or disadvantages for either gender. The mean T scores for both men and women were at or about 50, with standard deviation of 10; therefore, there was no significant clinical difference between genders. The normative sample was composed of individuals ranging from age 18 to 80 all from different regions and communities in the United States. The representation of ethnicities is slightly skewed; Caucasians are overly represented and Asians and Hispanics are underrepresented. The MMPI-2-RF scores are non-K-corrected due to overwhelming data showing that K correction does not benefit, and at times, weakens the distinction between the norm group and the individuals being tested (Porath, 2012).
Interpreting The MMPI-2-RF included a vast amount of information about the reliability data in the MMPI-2-RF. For example, the scores on the Somatic/Cognitive Scales, Internalizing Specific Problems Scales, Externalizing Specific Problems Scales, and Interpersonal Scales amongst others were reliable based on test-retest correlations and internal consistency estimates in clinical studies. The empirical data offered by the Technical Manual shows strong and distinctive correlational findings, and consistent measures of the constructs the scales target. These findings provide strong evidence supporting the construct validity and reliability of the 51 Scales found in the MMPI-2-RF. There is much research supporting or opposing the claim of reliability in the MMPI-2-RF; these studies should be taken into account but carefully dissected. Any limitations in such studies may have a detrimental effect on their results (Porath, 2012).
The development of a scale is based on selection criteria and goals. For example, items selected for the Infrequent Responses (F-r) Sale had to fulfill the following criteria: 10% or less of the candidate items in the current normative sample must be answered and none of the 32 F-r items be scored by other infrequency scales. This was an important to step in order to eliminate overlap with other validity indicators.
There are threats to protocol validity for the MMPI-2-RF fall into two categories: non-content-based and content-based. Non-content-based invalid responding occurs when the responses of the individual being tested are inaccurate. Examples of such types of responses are nonresponding, random responding, and fixed responding. Content-based invalid responding is when the individual being tested gives misleading answers in order to distort their persona. Examples of such types of responses are overreporting and underreporting. In order to control for such...