Evaluation Of Fluensulfone, A Novel Nematicide For Control Of The Potato Cyst Nematode, Globodera Pallida

942 words - 4 pages

Introduction
The potato cyst nematodes (PCN), Globodera rostochiensis (Woll) and G. pallida (Behrens), are the most economically important and well-studied cyst-forming species within the genus Globodera. Even though both species are well established within the main potato-growing areas of the UK (Gatwick, 1992; Trudgill, 1986), there has been an increasing incidence of G. pallida in England and Wales with 67% of infested fields, as of 1998, comprising purely of G. pallida (Minnis et al., 2002). This increase in G. pallida is suggested to be a pitfall of increased cropping frequency of potato carrying the H1 gene, expressing complete resistance to G. rostochiensis, but is susceptible to G. ...view middle of the document...

fera.defra.gov.uk/) and could indicate an increased reliance on these products by growers for improving economic gross margin. Despite the impacts upon the current potato production system, changing EU legislation to safeguard the use of crop protection products (Hillocks, 2012; Anon, 2009) might restrict future availability of these nematicides. And if these substances become unavailable, the Potato Council estimated a two-fold increase in the economic cost of PCN (£26m per annum) (Twinning et al., 2009; Clayton et al., 2008). Besides, the increasing incidence of G. pallida in land treated with these nematicides provides evidence, which would support the suggestion of these substances not being very effective in controlling this species (Whitehead et al., 1994; Evans, 1993; Whitehead, 1992), and that soil treatments might have selected G. pallida from mixed field populations (Evans and Haydock, 2000; Trudgill et al., 1996). Moreover, accelerated degradation has been widely suggested as a limiting factor to nematicide efficacy (Karpouzas and Walker 2000; Karpouzas et al., 1999; Cox and Walker, 1996) and rotating nematicides has been proposed as a mean of managing nematicide efficacy (Osborn et al., 2010). Therefore, more active substances are needed and testing of new products, as they become available, is justifiable in helping to fill some important gaps in designing integrated management of PCN (Haydock et al., 2006).
Fluensulfone (5-Chloro-2-(3, 4, 4-trifluoro-but-3-ene-1-sulfonyl) - thiazole), from Makhteshim-Agan Industries Ltd (Beer Sheva, Israel), is a new molecule belonging to the fluoroalkenyle chemical group (Figure 1), and is intended for the reduction of nematode pests of crops. Studies elsewhere have reported activities of fluensulfone against hatch and mobility of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica J2 in vitro, as well as reduced root invasion and reproduction of the nematode on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill.) cv. Daniela) grown in soil treated with emulsifiable...

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