Evaluation Of Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Using Two Primers And Its Comparison With Conventional Isolation Techniques For The Diagnosis Of...

1036 words - 5 pages

Tuberculous meningitis is a serious hazard to public health especially in developing countries because of the devastating neurological sequelae and associated high mortality. It is very important to diagnose TBM in early stage to prevent such consequences. But the diagnosis still remains difficult because of the absence of a reliable and rapid technique. Sharma et al.20 reported sensitivity of ZN smear and LJ culture to be 1.4% and 14.3% respectively. The lower sensitivity is due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease as the number of organisms required for smear to be positive is 104 organisms per ml. Therefore, a sufficient amount of CSF must be processed. Previous studies have shown that sensitivity of AFB smear for diagnosis of TBM varies between 5-30%.1, 21, 22 The sensitivity of ZN smear in the present study was also low i.e 3.6% which is similar to the earlier reports. Centrifugation of large volumes (10–20 ml) of CSF for 30 min in a case of TBM and smear examination from the deposit improves the detection rate of AFB.23, 24
We observed higher sensitivity of BACTEC MGIT 960 (16.4%) over conventional LJ culture (5.5%). The 2 cases which were smear positive were negative on LJ culture but positive in BACTEC. The conventional LJ culture of M. tuberculosis from CSF is insensitive and slow (4-6 weeks). The sensitivity of LJ culture reported in earlier studies ranged from 10-83%.21, 25 The liquid BACTEC culture which is an automated system for diagnosis of TBM has a sensitivity ranging from 4.3 to 48.9%.21 Our findings are consistent with these studies. Mean duration of positivity of LJ culture was 28 days and by BACTEC culture, it was 13 days which is consistent with earlier studies.21, 26 Our results emphasized the fact that conventional modalities including BACTEC have not only poor sensitivity but they also take longer time to give positive results making these tests less useful to the clinician in the diagnosis of TBM.
Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have been found to be most sensitive and specific method among the available diagnostic techniques. In the literature, wide variability is seen with regard to the sensitivity of PCR. The reported sensitivity of the PCR technique in CSF varies from 33% to 90% and the specificity from 88% to 100%27 (Table 7).
Table I: Sensitivity and specificity of PCR in CSF of TBM cases in previous studies
Study, year Primer Sensitivity Specificity
Shankar et al. 199128
MPB64 65% 88%
Lee et al. 199429
IS6110 100% 38%

MPB64 100% 90%

65kDa 100% 62%

Seth et al. 199630
MPB64 88% 94%

Smith et al. 199631
IS6110 25% 100%

Narayanan et al. 200132
IS6110 95% 75%

TRC4 100% 75%

Sumi et al. 200233
IS6110 47% 100%
Kulkarani et al. 20054
Pab 90% 100%
Takahashi et al. 200534
Nested MPB64 100% 100%
Deshpande et al. 200735
IS6110 82.4% 75.9%
Rafi et al. 200736
IS6110 76.3% 89.18%
Afroze et al. 200837
MPB64 77.7% 100%
Sharma et al. 201020
Pab 82.8% 100%
Sharma et al. 201238
MPB64 82.22% 100%
...

Find Another Essay On EVALUATION OF MULTIPLEX POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION USING TWO PRIMERS AND ITS COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONAL ISOLATION TECHNIQUES FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF...

What is the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

1230 words - 5 pages The polymerase chain reaction or PCR for short can be used to create many copies of DNA. This allows the DNA to then be visualized using a dye like ethidium bromide after gel electrophoresis. The process has been refined over the years, however the basic steps are similar. The first is to denature dsDNA through heating to ~96 °C. This separates the two strands of DNA. The exact temperature to be used can be calculated with Tm = 4oC x (no. of G

Racism: a comparison using Spike Lee's "Do the right thing" and "Two towns of Jasper"

3793 words - 15 pages Byrd's torso as discovered he was black, he said that he "hoped it was a black man who killed him" (Dow and Williams). With this being his initial reaction, it becomes clear to the viewer that he is immediately concerned about the idea of a racially based murder, and he knows that that very well may be the case. As it turns out, it was a racially based crime, which only further reveals the previously masked tension between the two races. This is

On Art of Movie Posters Content: comparison of two movie posters Thesis: Identity of motives and diversity of expressive techniques make up the art of movie posters

647 words - 3 pages movie remembered by as many people as possible. Similarly, in both posters, the names of the main actors and actresses are put in a place very easy to notice. This, of course, helps to attract more public attention by using the special influence they have.The two posters do have many things in common, while at the same time, their forementioned differences should not be ignored completely. Under the same purpose and principle, various techniques are used to make the movie more profitable. All in all, identity of motives and diversity of expressive techniques make up the art of movie posters.

Author Techniques and the responders reaction to the theme of outsider in "The Chosen" by Chain Potok, "The Plodder" by Michael Leunig and "An Absolutely Ordinary Rainbow" by Les Murray

1069 words - 4 pages sect. The responder is presented with this type of outsider from the beginning of the novel, and is emphasized throughout the whole novel, providing a greater emphasis on it then other types of outsiders, such as persecuted victims. For instance at the baseball game, through descriptive language and comparison it is possible to see the Hasidic sect already as an outsider because of their physical appearance. In the novel the protagonist describes

A Comparison of Film Techniques of Two Film Versions of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein

2871 words - 11 pages A Comparison of Film Techniques of Two Film Versions of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein Mary Shelley wrote her novel 'Frankenstein' when she was just a young girl of nineteen. She wrote it in 1816, when she went on holiday with her friend, Byron. Byron was already a famous poet, and it was him who suggested that whilst they were away, they should both write a ghost story. At the time it was just a way of passing time and having

Technical manuals this essay have comcompared two different game manuals in communication techniques and in meeting its purpose

1468 words - 6 pages understand the meaning of the manual, they can use this edition as supply.By analyzing these two game manuals, it will give some recommendations. The manual can be designed several versions. For example, the manual can be designed as an electronic version with high technology, like a video. It is more suitable for both children who do not have many reading and comprehension skills and adult who are busy with work.In conclusion, this essay discusses

Psychiatric Evaluation and Diagnosis of Virginia Woolf

1015 words - 4 pages today. Bipolar II entails having recurrent major depressive episodes with hypomanic episodes. Means that most of the time the person will be depressed and not as likely to have manic episode even though they tend to happen. When manic episodes happen with depressive disorders, more often or stronger, then it is a bipolar I diagnosis. In bipolar II the symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other

A Comparison of King's Themes and Techniques with Woodgate's

849 words - 3 pages A Comparison of King's Themes and Techniques with Woodgate's Woodgate chose the topic of conflict between today's youths as it is a issue about which he feels passionate and which the audience and later readers could relate to and understand. 'We need to fight this oppression, which has now become an everyday occurrence in our society.' Woodgate's techniques are very similar to King's, however, I feel that King's

The Development of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs

1723 words - 7 pages of removing the DNA from the cells of the bacteria in order to perform more reactions on the DNA. This process rids the samples of unneeded materials. After isolation, a polymerase chain reaction is run on the samples in order to amplify the specific gene needed. Following PCR, either a gel is run to check for success or the samples are cleaned for sequencing. Sequencing is the process of analyzing DNA in order to determine its base pairs. These

Psychiatric Evaluation and Diagnosis of Joan of Arc

2697 words - 11 pages neoplasms include: surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Further examination would have to be done on Joan of Arc’s supposed tumor to conclude the best route for treatment. Treatment depends of the type, grade of tumor, its location in the brain, and its size. Temporal Lobe Focus Epilepsy A couple of the main ways to treat a seizure are with medication and surgery. Two of the main medications used are carbamazepine or phenytoin. Surgery is also

The salient features of Islamic economics and contrast them with those of conventional economics

783 words - 3 pages Introduction to EconomicsThe salient features of Islamic economics and contrast them with those of conventional economics?IntroductionIslamic economics is based on the Shariah which governs secular as well as religious activities. The basic objectives are to ensure general human well-being and socio-economic justice. Islam advice Muslims to enjoy the bounties provided by Allah and to set quantitative limits to the extent of material growth of

Similar Essays

Evaluation Of Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Using Two Primers And Its Comparison With Conventional Isolation Techniques For The Diagnosis Of

602 words - 3 pages ´ and 5´-GTC CTC GCG AGT CTA GGC CA-3´respectively.11 The PCR assay contained 10pM of each primer, 10mM dNTPs, 10x buffer, 2.5 units of Taq polymerase and 5μl of extracted DNA. PCR tubes were subjected to 95˚C for 5 minutes and 35 cycles each of denaturation at 95˚C for 1 minute, annealing of primers at 68˚C for 1.5 minutes, primer extension at 72˚C and final extension at 72˚C for 10 minutes. Test results were compared with the results for one

Evaluation Of Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Using Two Primers And Its Comparison With Conventional Isolation Techniques For The Diagnosis Of

798 words - 4 pages when the band is present for MPB64 or IS6110 or both). Table 3: Comparison of multiplex PCR with culture and smear Study group Smear positive n(%) LJ n(%) BACTEC n(%) MULTIPLEX PCR n(%) MPB64 n(%) IS6110 n(%) Only MPB64 n(%) Only IS6110(+) n(%) Group I Total TBM cases (n=55) 2(3.6) 3(5.45) 9(16.4) 45(81.81) 44(80) 41(74.5) 3(5.45) 1(1.8) Confirmed TBM (9) 2(22.2) 3(33.33) 9(100) 9(100) 9(100) 9(100) 0 0 Suspected TBM (n=46) 0 0 0 36(78.26) 35

Polymerase Chain Reaction Essay

1016 words - 4 pages complementary to the target region along with the DNA polymerase are key components to enable selective and repeated amplification. As PCR progresses, the DNA generated is used as a template for replication. As a result the polymerase chain reaction can be extensively modified to perform a wide array of genetic manipulations. In Chemistry, medicine and genetic analysis 2006, (RSC, Advancing the Chemical Sciences) Scientists are predicating the use of

Polymerase Chain Reaction (Pcr) Essay

3001 words - 12 pages Dr. Kary Mullis first described polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 1983, and won the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1993 for his work performed on PCR. Dr. Mullis considered PCR a concept rather than a technique, but the most important aspect to his concept is that PCR literally can pull out a small piece of DNA from its context and amplify it. PCR may have a relatively recent front on science, but it certainly has brought forth a new horizon and