This essay examines how Millennium Development Goal is a successful approach to development. The paper attempts to evaluate the global achievements made by various development theories for the humanity.
The United Nations declared the Millennium Development Goals in the year 2000 with the aim of reducing: global poverty; illiteracy; gender inequality; reduce child mortality; improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, ensure environmental sustainability and develop a global partnership for development. The pledge made by the world leaders of the global community to measure progress of society (Okeke and Nwali, 2013).
MDG has received significant attention all over the globe. Several nations have adopted the Millennium Development Goals as a strategy in their development policies. Many less developed countries have reaped the benefits of the Millennium Development Goals.
One of the goals of the MDG is to eradicate extreme poverty. With regard to the eradication of extreme poverty, immense progress has been made. As per the report of UN (2013), “the proportion of people living on less than $ 1.25 a day fell from 47 percent in 1990 to 22 percent in 2010. About 700 million fewer people lived in conditions of extreme poverty in 2010 than in 1990.” It was found that, “28% of people worldwide in 1990 had the purchasing power below $ 1 per day” (Attaran, 2005).
In a small country like Bhutan also, poverty is the major issue. The nation has made impressive achievement, as it reduced its poverty level from “36.3% in 2000 to 23.2% in 2007” (UN, 2008). Bhutan can succeed to half the poverty level by 2015.
On the other hand, this ambitious goal is confronted with criticism and hardship; starting from the reliability of the data collection procedure. It can also be argued because the poverty line is set too low ($ 1.25 per day), and the ability to buy basic needs like food and shelter is difficult with this amount.
According to the UN’s Millennium Development Goals Report 2012, extreme poverty level is falling and poverty reduction has been met; but it’s sad that countries like: sub-Saharan Africa and Oceanic are unlikely to meet the goal of reducing poverty. In sub-Saharan Africa it had reduced its poverty level by 9.5% only, in 13 years of time, from 57% to 47.5%. The progress made so far is very slow.
Some scholars have pointed out, if the UN wants to keep their 2015 pledge, we must reduce 31 million undernourished people every year till 2015. A challenging view was expressed by Domingo (2006) that the number of hungry people is increasing by more than four million in a year. In case of Pakistan, the undernourished people have climbed from 24% in 1990 to 33% in 2003.
Another success story of the MDG is, since 1990, the child mortality rate has dropped by 47%. And the total number of under-five deaths in the world has fallen from 12.6 million in 1990 to 6.6 million in 2012. Recent data shows decline of under-five deaths (from1990 – 2007) in...