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Evaluation Of Two Models Of Memory

2161 words - 9 pages

Evaluation of Two Models Of Memory

In this essay 2 models of memory will be described and compared. They
are the Atkinson and Sniffrin model of memory, the Multistore model,
and Crain and Lockhart model, the Levels of Processing Model. Models
of memory are primitive diagrams of human memory to help understand
the flow of information and how it is stored. In order to evaluate
those 2 models appropriately it is important to understand how old
they are.

The Multistore Model of Memory by Atkinson and Shiffrin is a very
primitive model although it does try to explain how the memory works
quite well. It recognises 3 memory stores – the Sensory Memory Store,
the short-term memory store and the long-term memory store. The
environment makes available a variety of sources of information. The
information comes in through the sensory system – through one of the
five human senses. For a brief time it gets stored in the sensory
memory store; 2 seconds for auditory and 0.5 second for visual
information. It is an exact copy of the stimulus, although it lasts
for a very short time. The experiment done by Sperling in 1960, where
he showed a quick image to the participants and asked them to write
the answers down, supports the theory of existence of the Sensory
memory store, as participants could only remember 36% of the image on
average. According to the model, if attention is paid to an external
stimulus, an internal thought, or both, then it is stored in the
short-term memory. It is mostly stored in auditory form, however other
types of encoding are also possible. Short-term memory is also called
working memory and relates to what we are thinking about at any given
moment in time. It is the memory from which an answer to a question
comes out – the output. The presence of the short-term memory store
and the auditory encoding is supported by the experiment conducted by
Conrad in 1964, where he showed participants sequences of letter at
random in a rapid succession, and relied on errors made to create his
conclusion. He found out that the majority of errors involved a
substitution of a letter by another letter of a similar sound.
However, it is very easy to lose the information due to decay or
displacement. Displacement means that new information pushes out the
old information as the capacity of the STM is very limited; researched
by Miller in 1956 it is supposed to be 7 items plus or minus 2. For
example, you are processing the words you read on the screen in your
STM. However, if I ask, "What is your telephone number?" your brain
immediately calls that from long-term memory and replaces what was
previously there. Decay is similar as the information disapperas as
time passes by as the duration of STM is limited. Chunking can
increase the capacity of short-term memory. For example, the letters

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