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Everything You Need To Know About A Cell Definitions In Outline Form, Interpretation Of Honors Biology Intro.

1590 words - 6 pages

This isnt written in paper form, but a relaible list of terms to help you orginize your thoughts, or clarify problems. I made an A in this Honors Biology!I.Chemical foundations for the CellsA.Organization of matter -(elements, compounds, mixtures)Elements- materials that cannot be decomposed into substances with different properties.Compounds-made of different elements in fixed and unvarying proportionsMixtures-two or more elements present in varying proportions1.Atoms and ionsa.atoms- smallest portion of an element that still retains properties of the element; contains protons, neutrons, and electronsb.molecules- units of two or more atomsc.atomic nucleus- core of atom that accounts for almost all its mass; (-)electrons move rapidly around itd.atomic number- number of (+) protonse.mass number- number of protons and neutronsf.ion- an atom (or compound) that has gained or lost 1 or more electrons, thus is positive or negative in charge2.Isotopes- vary in number of neutronsa.radioactive isotopes- have unstable nuclei; breakdown over time3.Arrangement of electronsa. orbitals- regions of space around nucleus where electrons may be at any instant. Each contains 1 or 2 electronsb. electrons closest to nucleus are at low energy levelsB. Bonds between Atoms1. ionic bond- two ions bound by mutual attraction of opposite charges (Na+Cl-)2. covalent bonds- atoms share electronsa. non-polar- both atoms exert same pull on shared electronsb. polar- one atom exerts more pull than the other on shared electrons; one atom is slightly positive, the other slightly negative; net charge zero3. Hydrogen bond- an electronegative atom weakly attracts an H atom that is covalently bonded to a different atom4. Hydrophobic interactions (not true bonds)a. hydrophilic- substance is attracted to water molecules due to polar natureb. hydrophobic- substance is repelled by water molecules due to non-polar natureC. Acids Bases and Salts1. Acid- substance that releases a hydron ion solution2. Base- substance that combines with a hydrogen ion solution3. pH scale- base on concentration of hydrogen isons in solution: --0(acid)------------7(neutral)-------------14(base)--4. Buffers- substances that combine with and/or release H ions in response to changes in pH5. Salt- an ionic compound formed by rxn between an acid and a base and dissociates in water into positively and negatively charged ionsII. Carbon Compounds in cellsA. Role of carbon in cell structure and function1. Families of small organic molecules- no more than 20 or so C atomsa. simple sugars- buuilding block for syntheses of polysaccharidesb. fatty acids- building blocks for syntheses of lipidsc. amino acids- building blocks for synthesis of proteinsd. nucleotides- building blocks for synthesis of nucleic acids2. Properties conferred by functional groupsa. C-H compounds- hydrocarbons; may be straight chained, branch chained, or ringed; non-polar, don't dissolve in water (hydrophobic); properties of fats oils and waxesb. C-H-O...

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