Evolution In Methods Of Diabetic Treatment

2178 words - 9 pages

Glucose is an important factor for many physiological processes in the body such as glycolysis, food digestion and cellular respiration (Sugar: The Good,The Bad and The Ugly). It is the most convenient source of cellular energy and is either metabolized immediately for the body’s utilization or it can be secured as fat for future use. When glucose enters the body it is regulated by pancreatic hormones called glucagon and insulin. These specific cells are biologically synthesized to either increase or deplete blood glucose levels within the body. The insulin hormone, which is found in beta cells, starts off as pro-insulin a single chain polypeptide which is created in the endoplasmic reticulum. Pro-insulin is transported to the Golgi apparatus where enzymes known as proteases break down the pro-insulin and transforms it from a single stranded polypeptide into a disulfide bond hexamer known as “mature insulin” (Jubiz). Insulin serves as the key to unlock the plasma membrane so that extracellular glucose can be integrated into the cells (Eric P. Widmaier). According to the 2004 edition of Human Physiology, The Mechanisms of Body Function, insulin binds to particular receptors on the plasma membrane in target cells and stimulates the signaling of Glucose transporter proteins. These proteins fuse with the plasma membrane and allow glucose to be moved into the cell via facilitated diffusion. Glucagon is formed by alpha cells and is most effective in the liver where gluconeogenesis takes place. In the opposite light of insulin, glucagon is used to naturally create sugar when the body deems necessary, such as in times of stress and or starvation . It is due to the functions and key products of both glucagon secretion and insulin secretion that the type of regulation at hand is feedback inhibition.
In January 26th 2011 it was recorded that over 25 million people in the United States alone suffer from diabetes (Associtaion). A little over 8 percent of the U.S. population is diabetics with new cases being diagnosed every day. Amongst all ethnicities that commonly develop this disease the African American race leads the majority with a percentage of 12.6 percent. The Hispanic community ranks second with 11.8 percent with Caucasians and Asian Americans consisting of the lower percentages in the U.S. An article, posted by the World Health Organization, stated that as of August 2011 over 346 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes. Sources reported that 10.9 million people in the United States that are 65 and older had diabetes while patients 20 years and younger have the disease. Physiological complications resulting from diabetes include nerve damage in the eyes, fingers, feet with heart disease being the lead cause of diabetes related deaths (National Diabetes Information).
Originally, during ancient times diabetes was classified as a death sentence amongst those who developed the disease. Among many ancient medical philosophers the description...

Find Another Essay On Evolution in Methods of Diabetic Treatment

HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF GYNURA PROCUMBENS (Lour) Merr. IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MICE

1278 words - 6 pages from 1999 to 2002 in the Philippines. As of 2005, diabetes affected one in every 25 Filipinos. In the Philippines, there were 3.4 million diabetes cases in 2010, representing a prevalence rate of 7.7 percent and by 2030, the prevalence rate is projected to rise to 8.9 percent or 6.16 million cases (Valisno, 2013). At present, the management of diabetes is still a global problem and a successful treatment is not yet discovered. Although a lot of

A Victorian Battle: The Methods of Sherlock Holmes, as Depicted in The Hound of the Baskervilles v. Charles Darwin, in His Theory of Evolution

1950 words - 8 pages myths with his rather swift and hyper-logical intuitions, like many other scientists of the time, Darwin included. The Holmes series, and some would argue genre, was created by Conan Doyle at nearly the same point in time that Darwin was assembling his Theory of Evolution for the world to critique. Holmes became the personification of the Victorian era’s obsessions with science and technology and reflects it with the numerous, above mentioned

PREVELANCE OF MASKED HYPERTENSION İN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS AND CORRELATION WITH HBA1C LEVELS

916 words - 4 pages The main finding of this study is that the serum ADMA levels were significantly increased in MHT patients with DM compared to normotensive diabetic subjects. ADMA levels, BMI, and low HDL levels were independent predictors of MHT in patients with DM. ADMA levels positively correlated with ABPM measurements, especially daytime measurements, but were not related to office BP measurements. ADMA levels may play a role in prediction, with a good

The Power of the Pump; a Life Changing Advancement in Diabetic Technology

2581 words - 10 pages “Nearly 26 million children and adults in the United States have diabetes”. That is roughly eight percent of the population. However, there is a statistic that is even scarier. Of the 26 million people in the U.S. who suffer from diabetes, only about 19 million people have diagnosed diabetes (“Fast Facts”). This means that there are about 7 million people living in the U.S. who are diabetic, but do not know it. Unfortunately, there is not much

Future evolution of trade unions. This essay address strategies and methods in needed to support the continuations of the union industry

902 words - 4 pages must continue its evolution if we are to remain North America's strongest unionized nation.Therefore, we must firstly consider what it is that we must evolve with. It is not only the economic climate which we must consider, but also societal values. In order for unionism to achieve a set of common goals, there must be some unification as to what these goals are! Secondly, we must endeavor to clearly identify not only today's obstacles and

Treatment of female sexuality in

2010 words - 9 pages treatment of female sexuality. These often stand out, for various reasons, but most frequently due to lots of sex and sexual themes within the film. For discussion of the treatment of female sexuality in Italian film are is one film. This film is the iconic film, Last Tango in Paris, or Ultimo tango a Parigi. This film has a very interesting storyline, and exploration of character dynamics, as well as interesting history. But most importantly, this

Treatment of Minorities in Turkey

1650 words - 7 pages Treatment of Minorities in Turkey Problems with format Turkey, a relatively new nation, is not new to internal conflict and the oppression of minorities. Wedged between Europe and the Middle East, the area occupied by Turkey has long served as a crossroads between these areas, and, as a result, Turkey's majority Islamic Arab populace is smattered with significant pockets of minorities. These religious and ethnic minorities have been the

Treatment of Autism in Adolescents

1582 words - 6 pages reduce irritability (“A Parent’s Guide”). The third type is Complementary and Alternative treatments. These treatments are extremely controversial. They include acupuncture, chelation (a treatment to remove heavy metals from the body), or body-based systems. It is very dangerous to try these types of treatments and can put a child at risk (“Complementary and Alternative Approaches”). In the January 2010 issue of PEDIATRICS, an article about a

Discussion of Former Child Soldiers With Ptsd and the Available Treatment Methods

1972 words - 8 pages boys in his village. The trauma and bloodshed that approximately 250 000 child soldiers worldwide are experiencing has resulted in researchers conducting studies on the impact these traumatic events has on the development of a child. What follows, is a discussion of PTSD among former child soldiers and examples of treatment methods being offered to children who have experienced war trauma through enslavement, torture or murder.In his magazine

Evolution of Immunity in Invertebrates

1165 words - 5 pages the evolution of metazoan animals when it became important to distinguish different types of cells within one animal. Immunoglobulins such as Hemolin have been found in moths, grasshoppers, and flies, as well as lower vertebrates. This suggests that antibody-based defense systems, although only active in vertebrates, found their roots in the invertebrate immune system.Evolution seems to have also conserved many of the control signals for these

Evolution of Slavery in Justice

1388 words - 6 pages slavery. The stoics believed whole-heartedly in an egalitarian social structure. This philosophy extended to the treatment of slaves and had a profound effect on Cicero. Cicero advocated for “treat[ing] slaves as we should employees.” (Cicero. “De Oficiis.” 1.41.) His theory of justice relied heavily on the phrase suum cuique (to each his own) and beating and mistreating slaves was unjustifiable because a Roman would never treat another Roman that way. (Cicero. “De Legibus 1.8.) This theory of, “Do unto others as you would have them do to you,” is a great leap in morality from old philosophies.

Similar Essays

Understanding Ptsd And Methods Of Treatment

1585 words - 6 pages whether PTSD is fully curable, but all will recommend immediate psychological or medical methods. Although all methods have been proven successful at some rate, all are dissimilar. The best treatment for PTSD can depend on whether or not a person has other psychological difficulties or the type of traumatic event experienced that led to the PTSD in the first place. (Tull) Travis Twiggs’ had some very strong advice to offer his fellow soldiers

Causes, Prevention, And Treatment Methods Of Cervical Cancer

2168 words - 9 pages The purpose of this research paper is to examine the details of cervical cancer pertaining to the most prevalent types of cervical cancer, the progression of the disease, and treatment methods proven most effective through research studies. Cervical cancer is the mutation of a female’s cervical cells and is separated into four stages of progression (stages I through IV). The contraction of cervical cancer has been attributed to prior contraction

Prevelance Of Masked Hypertension İn Type 2 Diabetic Patients And Correlation With Hba1 C Levels

2332 words - 10 pages using ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM),and in those with diabetes as a OBP <130/80 mmHg and a ABPM >125/75 mmHg (11). The prevalence of MHT is accepted as 8-10% among the general population. Among the diabetic population masked hypertension prevalance is increased about two to six times in comparison to general population. In the current literature, MHT is associated with increased macrovascular and microvascular complications in patients with DM

Hypoglycemic Activity Of Gynura Procumbens (Lour) Merr. In Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice

1125 words - 5 pages procumbens. Statement of the Problem What is the hypoglycemic activity of Gynura prcumbens leaf extract in alloxan-induced diabetic male mice? Objective of the Study The present study will be conducted to determine the hypoglycemic effect of Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. in Alloxan-induced diabetic male mice. Significance of the Study Gynura procumbens grows extensively in Southeast Asia, where it is traditionally used for treatment of