Evolution Of Thoughts In Scientific Management

1814 words - 7 pages

"The main thing in management is to putthe necessary person on the necessary place andto achieve performance of the task put before it."SokratINTRODUCTIONAny organisation, any enterprise cannot become successful without management.However management as a science in such kind in which we have it now, has appeared not at once.As soon as people began to live in organised groups, the necessity of management hasappeared.At the first stage where groups of people were insignificant, management in all spheres was carried out by one person - the leader of this group. Further, in process of group growth and complication of functions carried out by them, the necessity of labour division and group differentiation has appeared. But it couldn't happen at once, it required centuries.The Egyptian pyramids build in 3000 - 2000 B.C. are a good example not only ancient Egyptian's culture, but also their administrative art. Construction of huge pyramids demanded,first of all, precise planning.While the practice of management can be traced back to 3000 B.C., it was not given serious attention until 1800 when large organisations emerged.Industrial revolution has given a push to development of theoretical researches and management practices.However, till an epoch of capitalism function of management was carried out by the owner himself and a small group of the persons approached to him. The role of the specially trained managers developed during an epoch of monocapitalism. Having been faced with a competition, changeable environment, managers developed knowledge system of how it is better to use resources.During all history of management development we distinguish two approaches: classical and modern.Classical approach allows to allocate four patterns of management thought:1898 Scientific management1916 Administrative management1920 Bureaucracy1927 Human relations SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENTOccurrence of scientific management takes place at the beginning of 20th century and is connected to F.W.Taylor's name, Henri L.Gantt, Frank and Lilian Gilbreth.Scientific management focuses on worker and machine relationship. Organisational productivity can be increased by increasing the efficiency of production process.In 1911, Frederick Taylor, known as the Father of scientific management, published Principles of Scientific Management in which he proposed to design work methods to increase productivity. One of his famous experiments was performed at Bethlehem Steel Company in Pittsburgh. He examined the time and movements, developed a better method for performing that job and trained the worker. In addition, Taylor offered a piece rate that increased as workers produced more.Taylor's studies were followed by Gibreths, a husband and a wife, who also helped to find more efficient ways for workers to produce output. Frank Gilbreth made his contribution in the field of brick lying by changing an 18 step process into 5 step that led to increased productivity by about 200 percent.The...

Find Another Essay On Evolution of thoughts in Scientific Management

Scientific Management v The Hierarchy of Needs

2170 words - 9 pages ) developed the principles of scientific management in America in the early decades of the twentieth century. Frank & Lillian Gilbreth, Henry Gannt significantly contributed to the theories, but Taylor was the main individual to develop this theory.Philadelphia was the industrial heart of 1800s America. Taylor was born in 1856 of well-to-do parents who helped him achieve an excellent general education. He travelled to Europe on many occasions

The Evolution of Project Management Essay

2563 words - 10 pages played throughout history in the evolution of society. A study of projects of the past would include an assessment of the effectiveness in management of the projects-as well as development of an informal "lessons to be learned" profile in the conceptualization and completion of the projects. As an inventory of these profiles is developed, our knowledge of what to do in managing contemporary projects, as well as what to avoid, adds to our

The Evolution of Management Theory

3370 words - 13 pages Introduction - The Evolution of Management TheoryDuring the industrial revolution that took place in Western Europe and North America in the 18th century; various machines were built and the economy which was based on manual labor was replaced by machines. Then factories of large scale in the garment sector, automobile sector etc emerged rapidly and the need to increase organizational efficiency and effectiveness has guided the evolution of

Knowledge Management: Is this the next step in the evolution of management theory?

805 words - 3 pages Knowledge Management: Is this the next step in the evolution of management theory?Knowledge management is the latest management theory being adopted by firms. Knowledge management is a process of incorporating intellectual and knowledge based resources, to create a competitive advantage, by sharing them amongst employees and departments to devise the best practices. As pointed out in James Boomer's article it is a common misconception that

Evolution of Production and Operations Management

2251 words - 9 pages days. What was needed was an enlightened and more systematic approach to management.THE SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT ERA AND POMThe scientific management era brought widespread changes to the management of factories. The movement was spearheaded by the American efficiency engineer and inventor Frederick Taylor, who is often referred to as the father of scientific management. Taylor believed in a "science of management" based on observation, measurement

The Evolution of Management Practices and Theories

2086 words - 8 pages is organised, researched and taught in integrative way, bringing aspects from various disciplines while at the same time developing its own body of theory”. Based on these definitions, management and organisation complement each other hence it is essential to grasp both definitions in other to achieve organisational goals. 1.2 The Various Theories 1.2.1 Classical Management The classical management has two basic drives namely scientific

The Historical Evolution of Operations Management

1891 words - 8 pages had to review their way of producing and adapt to what customers needed rather proposing what they had to offer. In the modern era, operations has again changed because to stay ahead of competition businesses have to be one step ahead by proposing customers with innovative goods. During this evolution, the way employees worked has also changed. Although scientific management has immensely contributed, today this approach is less and less used in

The Extent to Which the Study of Management is Scientific

3417 words - 14 pages research’ has been used to support the assertions made above, as the findings relate to both scientific and observational studies. The study of management The development of management theory began in the late nineteenth century, with the emergence of large industrial organisations, and the ensuing problems associated with their structure and management. It was hoped that the management theories devised would be able to

Frederick Taylor Published The Principles of Scientific Management

870 words - 3 pages Frederick Taylor Frederick Taylor published The Principles of Scientific Management in 1911, describing how to increase productivity of workers by using the principles of the scientific method. He proposed there was a “one best way” to perform any task and that by training any worker in this standard operation, production could be made more efficient. Taylor outlined four principles: • Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a

Role of Women in the Scientific Revolution

2243 words - 9 pages When most people think of the Scientific Revolution, they think of scientists such as Galileo, Newton, Brahe, and Boyle. However, many people do not even know about the many women who played a vital role in the scientific advancements of this period. Even when these women were alive, most of society either ignored them or publicly disapproved their unladylike behavior. Because of this, these women were often forgotten from history, and very

Use of Animal in Scientific Research

1584 words - 6 pages “Maybe not wrong for everyone---it was clearly a complicated and individual choice---but wrong for me” (McCarthy 638). The use of animals in scientific research provokes ethical issues and casts doubt on the reliability of using animals in testing. Alternatives to animal testing are accessible and should be used instead of living animals. The personal choices dealing with animal testing proposes ethical issues that make people use their

Similar Essays

Charles Darwin's Scientific Theory Of Evolution

1485 words - 6 pages Conor McAvoy Professor A.J. Rocke HSTY 202 25 March 2014 Charles Darwin is well-known for his groundbreaking work on evolutionary biology. Among his many contributions, The Origin of Species is the most associated with his name. He introduces the scientific theory of evolution and suggests that species have evolved over a period of many generations through a process called natural selection. Darwin's theories have created much controversy among

Humanities: Evolution Of Management Essay

867 words - 4 pages Humanities: Evolution Of Management Introduction Different people have different ideas about the future. Albert Einstein said, "I never think of the future, it comes soon enough." On the other hand, Charles Kettering said, "We should all be concerned about the future because we will have to spend the rest of our lives there." I admit to identifying more with Kettering, so let's start to get a perspective on the future. It is impossible to

The Evolution Of Management Essay

1979 words - 8 pages took months to deliver to rapid delivery of an email in less than a tenth of a second. But with all this, the real question to ask is, "what is the future of management? Evolution of Management To answer the question about the future of management it is quite important to look over its past. From the beginning of the industrial revolution, management skills throughout this particular period were virtually unnecessary. However, with the

Evolution Vs. Creationism Argued In A Scientific Manner

1094 words - 4 pages Gaps". Although this approach uses the weaknesses of the scientific explanations where it can not further exactly explain parts of its theories to support its ideas, the stronger evidence still lies with science, which has been able to bit by bit, fill in the gaps existent within its theories and further more explain each particular detail of its theory.Day by day further evidence for biological evolution is found to support the idea. Researchers