How Important Was The Emergence Of Civil Society In Central And Eastern Europe In The Early 1980s For The Collapse Of Communist Regimes In 1989? Compare And Contrast The Polish And Romanian Cases.

2967 words - 12 pages

In 1989 a series of peaceful revolutions brought an end of the Soviet Union domination in communist states in Central and Eastern Europe. Dissidences, demonstration, protests, and the collapse of the communist regime led to the institution of democratic governments after four decades communist rule. These revolutions reveled both ubiquitous decay of the Soviet based communist system as a whole, but also how civil society developed a voice of dissidence and resistance within each nation in response to the repressive structures of communist regime. The active and involved role of civil society during the collapse of the communism seemed to have made these events unique in comparison to other revolutions. More than a decade has passed since these events, during which the idea of civil society in CEE context has evolved considerably. Both politicians and theorist have attempted to assess the strength of 'civil society' in these states and have used the notion as an interpretative tool in attempt to measure the democratic health of former communist states (Briton 2005: p. 1 ).However, not all states of the Soviet bloc had strong civil society and not everywhere democratization did go such peacefully as in Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary where situation was much more simple. On the other hand in countries such as Romania, Bulgaria or former Yugoslavia the transition to democracy claimed thousands of deaths.Nevertheless, this paper will focus on the role of the 'civil society' and it is emergence in 1980s as cause for the collapse of communist regime, by showing the contrast between Poland and Romania.Thus, firstly, it is required to start from a brief description how Soviet Union social bloc was create and also mention about main features of the communism in the Soviet bloc states and characterize a communist regime in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) after World War Two.Thus, it seems natural that Central and Eastern European countries hoped that Soviet Union with huge Stalin's Red Army after beating the Nazi's will make the region free from foreign domination. Unfortunately, for CEE, during Red Army march to Berlin between 1944-5, Stalin determined to do not make a CEE a hostile territory ever again. That is why he decided to cerate a buffer zone between Soviet Union and the West by imposing Soviet style socialism on all of Central and Eastern Europe.Hence, first couple of years after the war are regarded as relatively tolerant for non-Communist parties in CEE. However, in 1948 when the West Germany was established by the Western World, Stalin end with his tolerance for non-Communist parties. He immediately, ordered to all Communist parties eliminate all political opponents and take over the power over the state, and in by the end of 1940s all CEE states were govern like a Soviet Union. It meant that each country was ruled by Politburo of the national Communist Party. Officially, each country had a single house of parliament, whose member were...

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