How Might Motivational Theories Help You, As A Managing Director Of A Supermarket Chain?

1278 words - 5 pages

Motivation is the key to performance improvement. An understanding and appreciation of the simple yet complex human nature is a prerequisite to effective employee motivation and by extension, effective management and leadership.A knowledge of motivational theories would aid a Managing Director in any organization as these theories concentrate on human nature in general and motivation in particular. As Managing Director of this chain, I would utilize the articles and research undertaken by Douglas McGregor's Theory Y (1960), Frederick Herzberg (1959), Abraham Maslow (1942), Elton Mayo, Chris Argyris, Rensis Likert and David McClelland (1961).To excel, people must be motivated or driven to it, either by themselves or through external stimulus. The earlier works of F. W. Taylor (1911) termed scientific management, addressed the design and study of work that would maximize the efficiency of employees. He held that inefficiency was a management's problem, early job completion would lead to unemployment, employees work at less than their capabilities, performance should be tied to the pay system and that management is responsible for suitable job placement and training. More recent research suggests that social fulfillment, job security and the challenge of the job are needs to be also satisfied.This distinction in recognizing the individual and the job situation led to the Human Relations Movement, which referred heavily to the findings of McGregor. McGregor's Theory X assumes that people are lazy, avoid work and responsibility, and have no ambition. To get them to work, they must be rewarded, coerced, intimidated and punished for shortcomings.I recognize this as the constant need to police staff and in this oppressive and frustrating type atmosphere, there would be no possibility of any achievement or creative work. In contrast, Theory Y believes that people want to work, it being a natural activity leading to self - discipline and self - development. With the reward of cash payments, there is the freedom to do difficult and challenging work by themselves.Maslow's theme revolves around the meaning and significance of human work and seem to epitomize Voltaire's observation that ' work banishes the three great evils - boredom, vice and poverty.' According to Maslow, the basic human needs are physiological (hunger, thirst and sex), safety and security (shelter and protection), belonging and acceptance (by social or work group), self - esteem (ego), and finally the need for a person to fulfill their potential (self actualization).Here, I have to accept that these needs are not uniformly motivating and that pay and rewards (security needs), social contact (belonging), and status (self esteem) may be simultaneous. There is little consistent support that the needs are hierarchically organized and those finding difficulty in satisfying higher order needs revert to satisfying lower order ones (Wahaba and Bridwell 1979).Herzberg's theory is based on the...

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