Developmental psychology studies how human beings change over time. As people we come fully assembled at birth. We develop and learn throughout different stages in our life. It takes time to learn and understand the world and people that are around us. Figuring out where our place in this world is also something that develops with time. We are composed of many different systems and each one develops at its own rate. Developmental psychology relies on many things for its research such as genetics and sciences.
The study of children is very popular in developmental psychology as it has a strong preference for controlled experiences, but also gives a large range. As humans, we are very complex and need to be examined through all those “windows”, biological, social and environmental.
There are various theories as to how we as developing humans should be studied, there have been many different theorist throughout modern psychology and we will explore three of them who have left an impact.
Sigmund Freud is known for being one of the most influential and authoritive thinkers of 20th century. Through treating his medical patients, he discovered that symptoms of patients came from the unconscious mind from events in their past and trauma of early life. He was the first to argue that mental disorders were not caused by physical illness He began using the term Psychoanalysis. He believes that there is no such thing as free will and it is all just an illusion. He says all our actions are caused by early childhood experiences which affect who we become as adults.
He also came to see the personality as three separate aspects which all must be balanced for our mental health.
The first being the ID which is the natural urges of a person to get what they want. The ID is the blind instinct of basic animalistic desires, food sex sleep etc. It does not calculate what is acceptable or not but just what it wants. A baby who cries when he is hungry or tired is expressing the urges of the ID.
The super ego is the moral center, it is rigid and punishing. It restricts the ID like a parent figure or through the society it knows. For example a customer was given too much change at the supermarket. Her initial reaction is to take the money and continue on with her day, however her superego gets involved and tells her the right thing to do is return the money.
Ego is the mediator between the two and the actual interface with reality. It keeps the ID in check when its needs are unacceptable and tries to find ways to keep both the ID and Super ego happy.
Freud successfully redefined sexuality as any pleasure that can be formed as bodily pleasure. He split sexuality into what he describes as psychosexual stages. The oral stage is the time from birth to one year. The child gains pleasure through his mouth by eating or suckling. The second stage is the anal stage (1-3 years) and the child focus on gaining pleasure from releasing, this has a lot to do with toilet...