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Exam Revision Notes For Grade 11 Biology. Units Covered: Microscopy, Classification, Plant & Animal Kingdoms, Ecosystems, Cycles, Relationships/Symbiosis And Environmental Change

1220 words - 5 pages

BIOLOGY NOTES TERM 1 2003MICROSCOPYOcular - lens used for magnification (usually x10)Objectives - lenses used for magnificationLower powerx4Medium powerx10High powerx40Course adjustment - focuses image, moves focus quicklyFine adjustment - focuses image, moves focus slowlyStage - specimens are placed hereCondenser - focuses lightIris diaphragm - controls amount of light passing through the specimenTOTAL MAGNIFICATION=OCULAR MAGNIFICATION X OBJECTIVE MAGNIFICATIONCLASSIFICATIONTaxonomyKingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesScientific namesBinomial system uses GENUS and SPECIES namesKeys1)branching Keysthese keys use a tree diagram to sort out specimens2)Dichotomous KeysThese keys use a series to pairs of questions to sort out specimensCLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGSFive KingdomsMonera - bacteriaProtsita - single celled (have a nucleus)Fungi - mushrooms/toadstools etc (do not photosynthesise)Plants - contain chlorophyll and photosynthesiseAnimals - multi-cellular life forms that rely on other means for nutritionAnimal KingdomPhylum porifera·Sponges·Primitive·No organs or systems·Basically, a group of cells with a common collective purpose·Sponges are filter feedersPhylum Cnidaria·Anemones, corals and jelly fish·Possess stinging cells called cnidocytes·Possess a very simple digestive system, a sac with one opening·Corals secrete a hard calcareous (calcium carbonate) skeleton·2 main body forms:1)PolypInclude corals and anemones2)MedusaInclude jellyfishPhylum platyhelminthyes·Tapeworms·Very simple digestive system (may be absent)·Well developed reproductive system·Can be free living or parasitic·Tapeworms and flukes (par.)·Planarians (free living)Phylum Nematoda·Roundworms, heartworm, hookworm, pinworm·Parasitic or free living·Digestive system with 2 openingsPhylum Mollusca·Molluscs snails, slugs, oysters, cuttlefish, octopus, abilone·Soft muscular body often with a hard calcareous shell (sometimes internal)·Well developed eyes·Complex nervous systemPhylum Annelida·Segmented worms, earth worms, leeches, marine worms·Body is divided into segments, can possess appendages (sep. marine worms)Phylum Arthropoda·Hard exoskeleton with segmentsClass Crustoces·Crustaceans: crabs, lobsters, prawns, shrimps, crayfish, barnacles, water fleasClass Chelicerata·Arachnids: spiders, ticks, mites, scorpionsClass Diplopoda·MillipedesClass Chilopoda·CentipedesClass Insecta·Insects·Possess a ventral nerve chord (complex nervous system)·Largest phylum in animal kingdom, 800 000 speciesPhylum EchinodermataStarfish, sea urchin, sea cucumber·Spiny skinned·Radially symmetrical·Internal calcareous skeleton·Tube feet moved by water/fluid pressurePhylum Chordata·Dorsal nerve chord·Most advanced body...

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