This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Examine The Argument In A J Ayer's Passage

1591 words - 6 pages

A J Ayer- God talk is evidently nonsenseExamine the argument in the passage. (30)In A J Ayer's article 'God talk is evidently nonsense' he breaks down the religious argument that God's existence can be proved and how it is improbable to dispute his existence entirely.Ayer's argument leads to the conclusion that religious experiences being evidence for God's existence is logically unsound - "the argument from religious experience is altogether fallacious." He argues that claiming to have a religious experience is not evidence of religious knowledge; no more than claiming to have a moral experience is evidence of moral knowledge. In this sense if someone claims to experience 'x' this does not guarantee that 'x' is true - it simply indicates a probable reality of 'x'; this argument indicates that experience of God simply indicates the probable reality of such a God. Therefore despite claiming to have experienced God, it is not evidence of God but simply a probable reality that God may exist. In John Hick's book 'The existence of God' (1977) he states - "any special event or experience which can be constituted ad manifesting the divine can also be constituted in other ways and accordingly cannot carry the weight of proof of Gods existence." Hicks argument states that an event that may be deemed 'religious' can also be deemed as profane, therefore it cannot be proof of God's existence.Ayer goes on to say that a religious believer may claim his experiences are intellectual but unless his knowledge can be explained with empirical evidence he is simply lying to himself. Throughout the article Ayer uses the 'empirical evidence' argument, stating that nothing is true unless proved by one of the five senses. This argument links with that of David Hume; Hume suggests everything we know that can be regarded as true or false is either matter of fact (empirical evidence) or a logical relation of ideas. Hume also suggests that which does not fit the criteria must be deemed meaningless, as it cannot be proved true or false. Consequently when people talk about God's existence, it is not true because it does not fit Hume's criteria but it is not false because there is no factual evidence to contradict it - making any statement uttering God's existence meaningless. One could also state that God's existence is not probably as it is not falsifiable empirically and/or scientific, this is known as the verification principle; a statement must be falsifiable to be probable, as God's existence is neither matter or fact nor a logical relation of ideas, and it is simply meaningless. Ayer agrees as he writes, to say 'God exists' is just an insubstantial opinion cannot be proved right or wrong, anyone who says otherwise is producing a meaningless argument.Ayer goes on to say, philosophers that claim they know the truth are merely providing more material to analyse and no factual evidence. May philosophers are saying the same things which only sound slightly different and all...

Find Another Essay On Examine the argument in A J Ayer's passage

The Analysis of a Passage of Verse in 1590-1700

2438 words - 10 pages The Analysis of a Passage of Verse in 1590-1700 An analysis of a passage of verse or prose written between 1590-1700, explaining the meaning and quality they would aim to bring out in speaking the passage aloud. “To Anthea who may command him anything”- Robert Herrick The way we speak poetry must reflect the emotion of the poet, when writing it. To do

Comparing the Impact of Colonization in A Small Place, A Passage to India, and Robinson Crusoe

1105 words - 4 pages Impact of British Colonization Exposed in A Small Place, A Passage to India, and Robinson Crusoe British colonialism began in the early fifteen hundreds and even continues today with the British rule of the British Virgin Islands.  For centuries, literature has served as a type of historical documentation of colonization as many authors wrote about colonization from both a colonized and a colonizer's point of view. During colonization, and

Explication Of a Passage from "The Odyssey"

1314 words - 5 pages great spume of seas." The passage describes how, like a general calling up his reserves, Poseidon "called up the wind from every quarter," and how he uses his powers to "send a wall of rain to blot out land and sea in torrential night." He transforms the calm sea into a raging storm, "churn[ing] the deep with both hands on his trident." It is at once transformed by the god into a nightmarish hurricane; the seas whirl and the winds bluster

The Important Role of the Marabar Caves in A Passage to India

2984 words - 12 pages The Important Role of the Marabar Caves in A Passage to India       During the fourteen years that followed the publication of Howards End, Edward Morgan Forster underwent a harsh mood change that culminated in the publication of A Passage to India, Forster's bitterest book (Shusterman 159).  Forster was not alone in his transition to a harsher tone in his fiction.  A Passage to India was written in the era that

Argument in the Apology

874 words - 3 pages The main argument in The Apology by famous ancient Greek philosopher Plato is whether, notorious speaker and philosopher Socrates is corrupting the youth by preaching ungodly theories and teaching them unlawful ideas that do harm to individuals and society. In his words Socrates quoted the prosecution’s accusation against him: “Socrates is guilty of corrupting the minds of the young, and of believing in supernatural things of his own invention

The Difficulty of English- Indian Friendship in "A Passage to India"

1591 words - 6 pages In his "A Passage to India", Forster explores the possibility of English-Indian Friendship. He begins and ends by posing the question of whether it is possible for an Englishman and an Indian to ever be friends, at least within the context of British colonialism.Thus, as soon as the novel opens, the reader is introduced to an argument, between Mahmoud Ali, Hamidullah, and, Aziz raising this English-Indian-friendship question. The argument is

E M Forster and the British Raj in a Passage to India

1744 words - 7 pages The early years of the twentieth century saw the rise of the novel as a popular genre in the literature of the war-struck Edwardian England. Novelists like Joseph Conrad, E.M.Forster, Virginia Woolf, James Joyce and D.H. Lawrence gave the form new dimensions. Among these writers E.M. Forster made a mark in the literature of his age through his last novel A Passage to India (1924), which was entirely different from Forster's other novels in that

An Analysis of a Passage in The Stranger by Albert Camas

1906 words - 8 pages This passage is set before Meursault’s execution with the chaplain entering the scene, and telling Meursault that his “heart is blind”, leading to Meursault to yell and delve into his rant, and moment of consciousness. The passage has a calm in the beginning as if Meursault catches his breath from yelling previously, and he starts to reassure himself that he is not wrong for expressing his views as it went against the public’s religious beliefs

An Inward Collapse of the Human Perspective in Forster's A Passage to India

4013 words - 16 pages An Inward Collapse of the Human Perspective in Forster's A Passage to India        The reverberation of sound in the form of an echo is threaded throughout E.M. Forster's A Passage to India, and the link between the echo and the hollowness of the human spirit is depicted in the text. The echo is not heard in the beginning of the text when the English newcomers, Mrs. Moore and Ms. Quested, arrive in India; it is more clearly heard as their

Analysis of the way voice and dialogue are used in a passage from "Pride and Prejudice"

1090 words - 4 pages draw the sympathy of the reader to her and to trust the narrator. The 'general pause' of this sentence is followed by 'short silence' in the next which serves to underline our identification with Elizabeth's dread of what her mother may say next. The telling of the silence is as important as the dialogue, without this we would be unaware of the full nature of the social awkwardness. The narrator moves into a description Of Mrs. Bennets thanks

Analysis of the way voice and dialogue are used in a passage from Pride and Predjudice

1129 words - 5 pages the effect is to draw the sympathy of the reader to her and to trust the narrator. The 'general pause' of this sentence is followed by 'short silence' in the next which serves to underline our identification with Elizabeth's dread of what her mother may say next. The telling of the silence is as important as the dialogue, without this we would be unaware of the full nature of the social awkwardness. The narrator moves into a description Of Mrs

Similar Essays

Examine The Argument That Places Can Be A Source Of Inclusion And Exclusion For Specific Communities

1367 words - 6 pages studied. Secondly, by concentrating on what people do, and how they interact gives a moving picture of society (Taylor, 2009 p. 172). Similar to Goffmans theory, fellow sociologist Harold Garfinkel (1967) states that people are endlessly engaged in doing things; however, by using skills and knowledge gathered over time avoid chaos. It is the effectiveness, of these skills that helps create and maintain social order. These unspoken rules of social

Critically Examine The Argument That Nowa Huta Reflects With Amazing Clarity The Contemporary Contradictions In Poland

1496 words - 6 pages There are few examples in the world where the symbolic juxtaposition of a nation's past and future are as striking as they are in Poland. Throughout the country there are endless images representing an uneasy coexistence of a communist past in combination with a rapid move to the market economy. Yet perhaps the starkest change in terms of symbolism is most apparent in the purpose built socialist town of Nowa Huta. Nowa Huta was constructed from

Are The Three Phases Of A Rite Of Passage Equally Important? Demonstrate Your Argument Through An Ethnographic Example

1587 words - 6 pages , here they are removed from their usual routine and all that they have grown used to. This can involve merely changing their routine or something as extreme as having to leave their society.The transition or liminal phase is that which most people pay the most attention to when studying rites of passage. This it the phase where the person is in neither stage, an example of this would be a wedding ceremony, as a couple enter the place separate and

The Monomyth: Rites Of Passage In A Hero's Life

508 words - 2 pages A rite of passage is a memorable, emotionally charged journey that leads a person from one place in their life to another. Joseph Campbell, an american mythologist, recognized a structure which was often used in the story of a heroes journey. This structure he called a Monomyth, can be simplified and described as a 3 step process of departure, initiation and return. The "hero" (or anyone for that matter) departs their current situation and