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Examine The Principal Institutions Of The European Union Outlining The Functions That Each Partakes And Analyse The Community Decision Making Process Across The Institutions

2087 words - 8 pages

This essay will examine the principal institutions of the European Union outlining the functions that each partakes and it will also analyse the community decision making process across the institutionsThe European Union began to develop after the devastation of the 2nd World War. The aim was to rebuild Europe which was destroyed by war and to avoid new confrontations between nations that share similar histories and geography, while keeping their identity, language and culture. This vision of a new, united Europe started from resistance movements against dictatorships after the Second World War, despite this fact, it was also a vision shared by dictators such as Hitler and by Napoleon, who wanted to take over Europe and form a united Europe under their control.The origins of the EU lie with Altiero Spinelli and Jean Monnet. Altiero Spinelli, an Italian federalist, had the idea that local, regional, national and European authorities should cooperate with each other.During the creation of the European Union, important treaties were created and signed by the members which gradually unified them more and more. In that period, after the war, the Community was seen as a way of keeping peace by bringing together these nations to cooperate as equals. There were four main treaties that were important to the Union's success.The Treaty of Paris established the European Coal and Steel Community (1951) and was seen as the first step to a united Europe. The Community goal was to create a common market in coal and steel between the six founder members (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands).The Treaties of Rome and the European Atomic Energy Community treaty were both signed in Rome in 1957. The Rome treaties further established the European Economic Community and the EURATOM treaty was to develop the European Nuclear Industry through the creation of a common market of nuclear equipments and materials. The Maastricht Treaty was signed in 1992 and was the most important treaty towards a unified Europe. It modifies all previous treaties and officially began the gradual conversion to union.The institutional system of which the European Union is built on is a unique political structure and presently consists of 25 member states. There are four main institutions; the Commission traditionally upholds the interests of the Union as a whole, while each national government is represented within the Council, and citizens directly elect the European Parliament. Democracy and the rule of law are implicated in the European Court of Justice.The European Commission represents the general interest of the Union. The President and Members of the Commission are appointed by the Member States after they have been approved by the European Parliament. The Commission initiates proposals for legislation which is then presented to Parliament and the Council. It has been known, "Guardian of the treaties" (Mc Mornach J, 1999, P95) due to its obligation to ensure...

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