This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Examining Contrasting Views Of Texts In Introduction To Scholarship In Modern Languages And Literatures

1699 words - 7 pages

The range in which one could define a text is nearly infinite. A text can be informative, while a text can also be misleading. From a poststructuralist context, in “Work to Text,” Roland Barthes articulates a text as a process. Barthes explains that a text accomplishes a meaning that is “irreducible” (1328). Barthes also explains that a text requires a reader to combine the practice of reading and writing as a “single signified practice”, to produce the text, “open it out, set it going” (1331). Essentially, Barthes conceives that a text can be understood as a process for understanding. A work is closed, while a text can flourish when actively read. A text can only have meaning if ...view middle of the document...

Jarratt’s conception of a text derives all meaning from the author because by design, a text is influential. Text formulation according to Jarratt is a “resource for invention” (83). Rhetoric gives writing purpose.
In “Composition,” David Bartholomae argues that the exercise of composition is a process. Text composing, according to Bartholomae, is an evolving practice. Bartholomae’s discussion over the study of composition begins with the notion that “the teaching of composition is ungoverned, generally uniformed, and poorly sponsored” (105). Bartholomae does not place blame on the inadequacy of students, but rather teachers who are “ill prepared to think of them (students) as participating in the work of the academy” (113). Although assumptions of composition studies are universal, the actual practice of writing is unique to the individual. Teacher’s engagement with composition in the classroom has since attempted to bridge the gap between learning and experience in order to retain student interests. Bartholomae claims that the image of a student writing freely is “one of the most powerful and persuasive figures in the contemporary writing classroom” (116). Bartholomae suggests that the composing of a text is internal and dependent of the writer.
In “Poetics,” Charles Bernstein maintains that the practice of writing is innate to the writer. According to Bernstein, poetics is “an ethical engagement with the shifting conditions of everyday life” (129). Poetics can be referred to as a literary genre, “works on the philosophy of composition;” poetics can also be “works about poetry written by poets” (128). Poetics is different from literary theory in that poetics is “provisional, context-dependent, and often contentious;” while literary theory can be “described as the application of philosophical, political, or psychoanalytical principles or methods to the study of literary or cultural works” (128). Bernstein stresses that theory implies structure and consistency while poetics will sometimes “go out of its way to seem implausible, to exaggerate, or even to be self-deprecating” (128). Poetics concerns itself with how a work can shape reality. While intention is “the calculated effect of style and technique,” poetics motive is “the underlying reason for a work to come into being in the world, its orientation or trajectory” (130). Bernstein conceptualizes a text as a cultural work derivative of an author because writing is intentional.
Jarratt, Bartholomae, and Bernstein’s conception of text forming share a common motivator, being that the author creates meaning. Each conception of texts presented is similar in that words have no inherent meaning unless formulated by a composer. For example, Jarrett insists that at its most literal, “the communication model of rhetorical action presupposes autonomous speakers fully aware of their intentions and authors of their words” (88). In other words, meaning is dependent of the...

Find Another Essay On Examining Contrasting Views of Texts in Introduction to Scholarship in Modern Languages and Literatures

myth influences in modern hero stories - introduction to mythology - essay

2247 words - 9 pages Silva 7 Omar Silva Professor Hallsted Lit 36: Introduction to Mythology October 9, 2017 Myths Influences in Modern Hero Stories Classical mythology is a historic society that represents beliefs, religion, and culture of a past society, that can also be classify as “myths the stories of gods and heroes of cults in which we do not believe, tales that once had religious significance” according to the author Adam David Leeming (Leeming pg.3). Greek

Comparing And Contrasting Two Theoretical Views On Arousal/Performance Relationship In The Sports Context

810 words - 4 pages The two theoretical views on the relationship between arousal and performance in the sports context are the Drive theory and the Inverted-U theory but first, we define arousal and performance in sports context.The relationship between physiological arousal and motor performance has been of interest to psychologist since the early 1900's. Research led to the development of the two theories stated above. Arousal is a requisite for optimal sport

Examining the Relationships Between Characters in To Kill a Mockingbird and Of Mice and Men

579 words - 2 pages and his hand shook, and he dropped the gun again”. He finds it impossible to deal with but eventually shoots Lennie through the back of the head. Even though this may seem as an atrocious act it is done out of George’s love for Lennie, because Lennie just can’t be kept alive any more because he is so disruptive to almost everyone he meets. This relationship is one of the best that we can come across in a novel but it is under conflict quite a

Two Contrasting Feminist Views on How to Address Pornography in Keeping With First Amendment Rights - ENG 102 - Compare and Contrast Essay

1063 words - 5 pages issue is because the courts have been unable to agree upon an absolute definition of what obscenity really is. (Sunstein, 580) Some people can view certain material and immediately be repulsed declaring it “obscene” while others feel that there is no problem with it at all. Since a consistent consensus cannot be made, the distribution of pornography needs to be combated by intelligent discussion in keeping with the democratic process

Contrasting Views of the City of London Presented in William Wordsworth's Poem, Composed Upon Westminster Bridge and William Blake's Poem, London

993 words - 4 pages as well as ships being used for trade and Wordsworth views London as the gateway to the rest of the world, as a trade capital with plenty of commercial prosperity. ‘Towers’ gives reference to London’s architectural achievements with ‘domes and temples’ also giving reference to the structures achieved in ancient Rome which was considered to be one of the most powerful and prosperous civilizations at its time, Wordsworth feels London is comparable

To What Degree Might Different Languages Shape In Their Speakers Different Concepts Of Themselves And The World

1109 words - 4 pages To What Degree Might Different Languages Shape In Their Speakers Different Concepts Of Themselves And The World? What Are The Implications Of Such Differences For Knowledge?      The difference in languages can cause different perceptions of various cultures leading to distinctions or possible clashes. When I lived in France I faced some of the problems a language barrier can cause. The most common and at the same

How does the tension between traditional and modern views of the world play itself out in Achebe's and Desai's novels?

899 words - 4 pages even this simple act has its overtones, '...she has always liked to rule others...'In both of these novels the main characters have to be strong to deal with the tides between tradition and modern culture. Their lives are not easy, but while reading about them, maybe we can make it easier for others to live in our world and understand those who do not wish to make the journey of 'progress'. Failing that, maybe we can at least understand our own journey through this jumble we call life.

The Contrasting Views of Roger Williams and John Winthrop

799 words - 4 pages The Contrasting Views of Roger Williams and John Winthrop People immigrated to America for many reasons, most people shared in the same ideas of going to the New World to start new lives away from England. Roger Williams and John Winthrop both joined in the Puritan dissent to New England, but while they were living in Boston, Massachusetts they did not agree on several matters. These two men had contrasting views when it came to Christianity

the roles of languages in culture

1048 words - 4 pages Role Of Language In Identity Formation Cultural Studies EssayPeople that have multilingual background face complex issues in adapting and assimilating their language to cultural identity that they want to be identified with. People create their linguistic structure so as to bear a resemblance to those of the group with which from time to time they wish to identify. Cultural identity is defined as the product of social and historical background

Prejudice and Discrimination In Texts

1905 words - 8 pages This essay outlines the presence and nature of prejudice and discrimination, exploring their causes and effects in the texts "The Green Mile", "To Kill a Mockingbird" and "Bend it Like Beckham".Prejudice and Discrimination In TextsIn the film The Green Mile and the novel To Kill A Mockingbird, which display racial prejudice, and the film Bend It Like Beckham that addresses sexism, authors have drawn the conclusions that prejudice and

Write an essay of 950 to 1200 words on how historical facts are represented in the texts you have studied. You must make detailed reference to your focus texts and related texts

1625 words - 7 pages words of Miss Sasaki, Dr. Fujii, Mrs. Nakamara, Father Kleinsorge, Dr. Sasaki, and the Reverend Tanimoto gave a face to the statistics that saturated the media and solicited an overwhelming public response. However, the historical facts are all represented in different ways. They differed in the way that the information was gained and the genre. Also, the composers and directors various use of

Similar Essays

Examining Contrasting Views In The Field Of Normative Ethics And Applied Ethics

1583 words - 6 pages In this paper, I will examine contrasting views in the field of normative ethics and applied ethics. I will first analyze Aristotle in his writings on virtue ethics and W.D. Ross’s arguments for deontological ethics. I will then proceed to the field of applied ethics, and analyze the positions of John Noonan and Mary Warren on the issue of abortion. Aristotle, in his selections from Nicomachean Ethics, argues that eudaimonia is the supreme goal

Justice In The Orestia. A Look At The Contrasting Views Of Justice In Greece, And The Transition To A Deliberative For Of Justice

1437 words - 6 pages Aeschylus is primarily concerned with the nature of justice. In the trilogy The Oresteia, the Akhaians evolve from an older, more primitive autocratic form of justice, to a new concept of civil justice devised by Athena. He confronts the contrast between the old and new orders, the lives of the members of the House of Atreus, and the serious moral questions that Orestes' crime presents.The case against Orestes is strong. The son admits to

What Views Of Identity Are Shown In Your Core Texts (Love Song Of J. Alfred Prufrock And 'the Rhapsody On A Windy Night' And Related Texts (The Prestige And To Kill A Mockingbird)

2515 words - 10 pages and society in general. Identity may be contrasted with the notion of self. Identity is linked to self-image (a person's mental model of him or herself), self-esteem, and individuation. An important part of identity includes gender identity, as this dictates to a significant degree how an individual views him or herself both as a person and in relation to other people. Identity may also refer to the capacity for self-reflection and the awareness

The Transformation Of Islam And Judaism And The Introduction Of Mysticism In The Early Modern World

1616 words - 7 pages refreshed with its own mystical movement called Kabbalah. Kabbalah was based on series of religious texts referred to by the same name that offered mystical understandings of the nature of God, evil, the meaning of religious texts, as well as many other topics. The Kabbalah texts were created in the thirteenth century and looked back to older tradition, but they did not become popular until the early modern era. The Kabbalah “centers especially on