1- Preliminary arrangements
Progressively and for the sake of qualifying the proposed P-E's gap measurement context, the paper endorsed a number of acknowledged scholar techniques. The objective was to farm those techniques in order to spell out an acceptable managerial instrument, and to anticipate the concept of flexibility.
a) Questionnaire /constructs development
For developing a questionnaire, exploratory research is needed to investigate the likely determinants or attributes to be considered. Personal or focus interviews with the service users would be recommended. And for defining the scale attributes, a manager can capitalize on the previous empirical works cited in literature that are relevant to his or her own service sector. On the other hand, taking on Delphi technique would refine the multiitems questionnaire along the subscales (factors) underlined. Additionally, carrying out a pilot study would help fine-tuning the final script of the scale. However, the above approaches deduced from the works of Lam, Zhang and Jensen (2005). Alternatively, Walk –Thru- Audit practice of Fitzsimmons and Maurer (1991), cited in Olorunniwo and Pennington and Hsu (2002) could also be applied to develop a questionnaire. In their method a third party is getting familiar with the blueprint of a service sequential before experiencing the service itself, and he or she then proceeds into the walk-Thru- Audit while developing his or her own chronological questions; however, these questions are finally phrased to build the statements which are grouped into different dimensions.
b)Rating Scale development
Departing from the use of Likert scale which attaches numerical descriptors to different verbally described categories, and shifting from the use of ordinal scale where the numerals assigned to its categories reflect the order and serve to identify the objects, Saleh (2010) has reproduced a modified rating scale where the scale categories are ordered to indicate the direction of the scale's intensity on a continuum ranging from 5(e.g. favorable) to 1(e.g. unfavorable). The observed frequencies of each category, however, are counted and being weighted to imply that a greater importance is attached to respondents with certain characteristics of the scale. The arithmetic means produced of scale's categories guide only the analysis and merely generate a directional insight, and do not provide specific numerical magnitude. Our methodology endorses such a rating scale.
c) Sample Size and Control
The introduced methodology uses a sample size of...