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Expectancy Theory Essay

751 words - 4 pages

Motivation is an internal force that determines the level, direction and persistence of effort expended in an organisational environment (Dinibutun, 2012). There are many theories that aim to help explain certain behaviour at certain times. Process theories of motivation, such as Vrooms expectancy theory model, examine the cognitive process which affects decisions when it comes to alternative actions at work (Dinibutun, 2012). This essay aims to review the literature on Vrooms expectancy theory of motivation, analyse a real life work example and apply the theory and finally provide recommendations for improvement and self-development.
Literature review:
One of the many important facets of ...view middle of the document...

As part of this theory, Vroom defines motivation as the ‘force’ that drives a person to perform a particular action, which is determined by three cognitive variables: Effort to performance expectancy (expectancy), Performance to Outcome expectancy (instrumentality) and valence.
According to the theory, Effort to performance expectancy is essentially the belief that the effort exerted by an individual will result in the attainment of their desired performance goals (Scholl, 2002). Expectancy levels can range from 0 to 1, where expectancy is a person’s estimation of the probability or likelihood that effort will lead to successful performance (Lee, 2007). This perception or belief is based on an individual’s past experiences, self-efficacy and their ability to bear skills that enable them to alter the outcome of a given situation (Scholl, 2002). Scholl (2002) described three variables that affect the level of effort to performance expectancy: which are self-efficacy, goal difficulty and control. Self-efficacy is a person’s belief in their ability to succeed or perform behaviours successfully in specific situations. Ones sense of self-efficacy plays major roles in their approach to performance goals, tasks and challenges (Scholl, 2002) (Lunenburg, 2011). Goal difficulty can determine the ability of an individual to become motivated, goals or performance expectations that are set too high leads to lower expectancy...

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