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Experiment #2: Forces Essay

8594 words - 34 pages

1. ObjectiveThe objective of the second experiment of the PH1004 laboratory course is broken down into two parts. In part A, the aim is to determine the acceleration due to gravity of a glider, which runs along a straight line on an air track. A weight will be connected to the glider by a string draped over a pulley to create the necessary acceleration. To understand why objects accelerate, force and mass must be defined. A force can either distort or accelerate an object. When calculating a total force on an object, it is necessary to add the forces as vectors. Newton's first law of motion states that, if the vector sum of the forces acting on an object is zero, then the object will remain at rest or remain moving at constant velocity. Thus, the tendency of an object to resist any attempt to change its velocity is called inertia. Newton's second law of motion states that a net force on an object will accelerate the object at a rate proportional to the strength of the force and in the same direction as the force. Thus, one can relate mass, acceleration, and force through the following mathematical statement of Newton's second law:∑F = maThe attractive force exerted by the Earth on an object is called the gravitational force Fg. This force is directed toward the center of the Earth. The association between the glider's acceleration due to gravity, g, is provided for by the following expression:Aa = (m/(m + mgl)) * gThe value of acceleration, a, will be computed by utilizing photogates placed above the air track to measure the time intervals of the glider's motion between distinct points.In part B, the intention is to gauge the acceleration due to gravity of a glider, which runs along a tilted air track. Similarly, this value will be attained by measuring the instantaneous velocity using two photogates to calculate two time intervals from three distinct glider positions. The acceleration due to gravity can be determined from the measured elevation of the track and the acceleration of the glider by the following expression, in which the angle of elevation is represented by θ:sin(θ) = |h2 - h1| / |X2 - X1| and g = a/sin(θ)2. Raw Data TablesPart A Variables Symbol Description Measurement ToolXG1 Position of photogate G1 Meter StickXG2 Position of photogate G2 Meter StickXb The coordinate when the beam of G1 is just blocked by the flag Meter StickXub The coordinate of the right edge of the glider when the beam of G1 is just unblocked Meter Stickmgl The mass of the glider Scalem The mass of the hanging weights ScaletbG1 The time when the G1 beam is interrupted by the flag of the glider Photogate, ComputertbG2 The time when the G2 beam is interrupted by the flag of the glider Photogate, ComputerSeries 1 ...

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