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Experiment To Investigate Factors Affecting The Rate Of Reaction Between Magnesium Ribbon And Hydrochloric Acid

2245 words - 9 pages

Experiment to investigate factors affecting the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric acid

Rates of Reaction: Investigation

Experiment to investigate factors affecting the rate of reaction
between magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric acid.

Chemical reactions between substances are caused by the collision of
particles. More collisions mean a quicker rate of reaction.

In the reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon, the
chemical reaction takes place when the magnesium ribbon is dropped
into the hydrochloric acid. The products are hydrogen gas and
magnesium chloride.

The equation for this reaction is as follows:-

Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid Magnesium chloride + Hydrogen

Mg (s) + 2HCL (aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)

Factors that affect the rate of reaction:-

* Temperature
* Mass of magnesium ribbon
* Concentration of hydrochloric acid
* Surface area of magnesium ribbon

I have chosen to use the concentration of hydrochloric acid as my
independent variable. These different concentrations can be varied
easily and made up accurately for the experiment.

Each experiment will be done four times so that an average reading can
be calculated - ensuring an accurate and reliable conclusion. The
measured variable will be the time taken for the same quantity of
magnesium ribbon in each experiment to be used up in reaction. The
constant variable will be the length of the magnesium ribbon used in
each experiment.

Rate of reaction = Gradient of the line of a graph plotted with time
taken to cease reacting against

concentration.

Concentration of a solution describes the number of active particles
in a particular volume.

The unit of concentration is: mol.dm-3

Prediction

I predict that the higher the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the
quicker the rate of reaction will become, so the graph of results will
have a positive gradient. I predict this because of collision theory.
There will be more particles in a solution of hydrochloric acid with a
higher concentration than in a lower concentration, in the same volume
of liquid. This means that particles in higher concentrations will
collide with magnesium particles more frequently, therefore increasing
rate of reaction i.e. a shorter time measured for the magnesium to be
used up in reaction.

I can predict that rate of reaction will increase with concentration
of acid. The quicker the rate of reaction, the less time the reaction
will take to be completed.

Therefore:-

Rate of reaction 1 concentration of acid

time taken to react

So...

Rate of reaction concentration

time taken to react

Plan

I am intending to react a chosen length of magnesium ribbon with
different concentrations of hydrochloric acid. I will measure the time
taken for the magnesium ribbon to disappear (be used up in reaction)
with a stop-clock. This will be switched on when the piece of
magnesium ribbon is dropped into the hydrochloric acid & seen to be
reacting with the acid i.e. producing bubbles of...

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