This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Experiment With Alleles Essay

2217 words - 9 pages

Introduction
In our genes, multiple different alleles determine whether one person will have a certain trait or not. Alleles are what make-up our genotypes and in this lab, we wanted to determine the genotypes of our class in the two loci: TAS2R38 and PV92. The TAS2R38 locus codes for a protein that involves the bitter taste of PTC; the gene determines whether or not a person will taste the PTC paper as very bitter or no taste at all. People with the “T” allele are tasters while those that are homozygous recessive (tt) are non-tasters. The taster locus can be found chromosome 7.3 The two different alleles present in the could be due to the effect of evolution and natural selection because the same can be found in chimps.4 The PV92 locus does not code for any protein but rather involves an Alu element that is 300-bp long. A person with the “+” allele would have the Alu element making that sequence longer while those with the “-“ allele don’t have the element and would have a shorter sequence. This locus can be found on chromosome 16.3 There are multiple Alu sequences found among primate genomes but there are human specific sequences such as the one found on the PV92 locus.1 In the experiment, student DNA was collected from cheek cells and PCR was used to target the loci and amplify the region of DNA. In the taster gene, after amplification, a restriction digest was performed to differentiate between the two alleles. The digest was able to show differentiation because those with the “T” allele would have two bands from gel electrophoresis and those with “t” will have one band because the restriction enzyme doesn’t cut it. For the PV92, we were able to distinguish between the alleles due to the added length of the Alu element. Those with “+” have longer sequences so the band would indicate a long base-pair while those with “-“ would have shorter sequence and heterozygotes would have 2 bands that resemble both.3 Then once we figured out the genotypes, we used the data to figure out the allele frequencies through Hardy-Weinberg equations. After that we used the frequencies to calculate whether our data fit Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or not. To determine its fitness, we used the chi-square test to determine a P-value and decide whether or not to reject the null hypothesis. My hypothesis was that the class data would not fit Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium because it violates conditions like the infinite population and our class is not infinite. The null hypothesis of the experiment was that the data does fit the Hardy-Weinberg Principle.

Materials and Methods
First, we figured out the phenotypes of tasters versus non-tasters by tasting a strip of the PTC paper. Those who tasted nothing were classified as NT, bitter taste was T, and partial taster was PT. Then we started the DNA extraction: DNA was obtained from each student’s cheek cells to use as the template for PCR amplification using a collection swab and put the DNA into a DNA Extraction Solution....

Find Another Essay On Experiment with Alleles

B. Rapa Plants Lab on Heredity and Mendel's Laws - High School - Research Paper

1093 words - 5 pages dead plants as dwarf plants, which changes the ratio. A new experiment can be done with more care and attention and using more data. More data will help get a closer ratio of phenotypes; with more data you will get a much better ratio instead of using fewer data with less accurate ratios. Conclusion: From this experiment with B rapa

genetics written assignment essay - suny empire - paper

670 words - 3 pages and allows the experiment to run quickly. The significance of the F2 ratios portrays the ratio of the dominant trait showing to the recessive trait being visible. In all of the cases, it was about a 3:1 ratio. This means that with every 3 dominant traits that are shown, 1 recessive/contrasting trait will be shown. Another reason why all of the cases are a 3:1 ratio is because of Mendel’s law of Dominance/Recessiveness. The trait expressed in the F1

The Use of Modeling a Population by Scientists: Monte Carlo Simulations of Allele Frequencies

2324 words - 10 pages overall would die off due to the lack of food. Both equations are essential and proportional with the predator and prey populations because if changed both variables would affect one another. Allele interactions can be described as a term to specify an interaction between alleles of the same gene. The allele interactions have four types of identifications: dominant, recessive, homozygous, and heterozygous. The molecular basis of dominance

Fruit Fly Experiment: Conclusion

2192 words - 9 pages show its phenotype, whereas a male (XY) only requires one X chromosome with that allele.In this experiment both of the wild alleles (red and gridded) were dominant over the recessive mutant genes (white and lozenge). A dominant gene is one that overrides the effect of another. This means that whenever a fly was heterozygous to both the wild and mutant genes its phenotype would be that of a wild fly. This can be seen in the offspring from the first

The Genetic Basis of Adaptive Melanism on Pocket Mice

2728 words - 11 pages survives. 2. It is challenging to analyze phenotypes when there is little information known about genes. With the moths, nobody knows which of the moth's genes are responsible for the changes in color, so a genetic analysis is extremely difficult to do. 3. Most fitness-related traits are a mixture of many genes. This makes it hard to pin down the adaptations as a result of the actions of one gene. So

Evolutionary Quantitative Genetics

1557 words - 6 pages Traits that we have studied so far fall into a few easily distinguishable classes that we use to foretell the genotypes of the individuals (McClean, 1997). Mendel toiled with traits that were all discrete, example of such traits were yellow or green, round or wrinkled, etc. A phenotype can be predicted from the known genotype and various alleles give distinctly discernible phenotypes (McClean, 1997). These types of phenotypes are known as

Alzheimer’s Disease

1170 words - 5 pages ε2, ε3, ε4 alleles, but this locus would have been missed if not for a single SNP. Based on the Haploview software, the results measured were obtained by the D’ value. The Haplotype block 3 is composed of rs4420638 and two APOE SNPs; rs429358 and rs7412. The software helped conclude that rs4420638 was found to have a significant linkage with the SNPs that depict the three APOE alleles. Known to also be a rare allele, rs4420638, was found to be

The Genetics of Drosophila Fruit Flies

753 words - 3 pages body color phenotypes have higher values than eye color phenotypes (Table 5-8).DiscussionThe findings in this experiment support the hypothesis that the red eyed flies will have dominance over the white eyed flies. The number of the red-eyed flies was higher compare to the number of white eyed flies. Red eyes are the dominant allele. The alleles for the red and white eyes are sex linked. There were several problems that occurred in this

The Prevention of Contamination in a Laboratory

1675 words - 7 pages shedders hand. 6 Results from Lowe’s experiment determined that the genetic profile gained from the plastic tube contained the good shedders DNA showing all or some alleles. A full profile was seen of the good shedder with an absence of the poor shedder in the experiment using no time delay. This may lead to a false impression in determining the presence of an individual at a crime scene. A partial profile of the good shedder was seen in both

Haemochromatosis Detection

2740 words - 11 pages efficiency and specificity of target DNA by the PCR. METHODS The procedures dictated in ‘Biochemistry Genes and Disease’, Practical manual. 2004 pages 21-27 were followed. The only amendment that was in experiment one. The step “Overlay reactions with 100ul mineral oil” was excluded. RESULTS Figure 1 The PCR product obtained from the amplification of HLA-H Genomic DNA. The following could be seen from the electrophoresis analysis

Genetics: Mendel’s Principles

1450 words - 6 pages thoroughly. With Mendel’s background we are able to understand why he created his experiment and we can use these results to develop our own reason on why genetics affect us. Born on July 22, 1822 in Hyncice, Czechoslovakia Gregor Mendel got his start. He was born into a family of peasants where his father and grandfathers occupations consisted of gardening. At a very young age Mendel started his education studying under a local priest where

Similar Essays

Evidence Of Mendelian Inheritance Patterns Seen In Drosophila Melanogaster

1278 words - 5 pages it was determined through chi square analysis whether the alleles were linked or if it was indeed independent assortment. The overall hypothesis in this experiment was that genes were unlinked in the offspring and it would follow a normal Mendelian inheritance pattern with emphasis on independent assortment. The different types of inheritance patterns that could be found within the fly population included X and Y- linked, dominant or recessive

Genetic Crosses Features: Heredity And The Environment

837 words - 4 pages . Mendel worked with punnet squares to show his findings and research on how different characteristics and traits are inherited and how they can skip generations. He did this by conducting an experiment which lasted over many pea generations. First Generation: The first generation (parent generation) consisted of two different coloured peas which both had homozygous genotypes of AA (yellow) and aa (green). By plotting out the genotypes for

Bullocks Essay

5986 words - 24 pages equally probable ways in which the alleles can combine in the F2 generation.These combinations produce four distinct phenotypes in a 9:3:3:1 ratio.This was consistent with Mendel's results.Mendel repeated the dihybrid cross experiment for other pairs of characters and always observed a 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio in the F2 generation.Each character appeared to be inherited independently.If you follow just one character in these crosses, you will observe

Pop Genetics Essay

2147 words - 9 pages on population genetics. In genetics, it is important to study a population as a whole and how it interacts with other populations. This area of genetics is called population genetics. Studying certain genes and the frequency of their alleles and genotypes in each generation can give us information about the behavior of the population. A genotype frequency is the frequency of different allelic variations of a single gene. Depending on the number