Turbo machines divide into two applications, which are machine that converts potential fluid energy to kinetic energy (turbine) and machine that convert kinetic energy to potential fluid energy (pump and compressor). The different between pumps and compressors is the fluid that is delivered. Pumps deliver liquid whereas compressors or fans deliver gas. There are two kinds of pumps which are centrifugal pumps and positive displacement pumps. Positive displacement increase fluid pressure through reducing the control volume whereas centrifugal pumps convert kinetic energy got from shaft rotation to potential fluid energy which increases fluid pressure. Centrifugal pump has the wide range of application in pressure rise and flow rate. Furthermore, centrifugal pump application delivers the fluid continuously; the pulse of the fluid is almost negligible. Therefore, centrifugal pump is very often used in industrial ...view middle of the document...
Another unit that is required pumps is steam production unit. Making high pressure steam is done by boiler where the water is supplied high pressure water from centrifugal pumps. It can be seen that pumps has important role to keep plant production continue. Therefore, performance of the centrifugal pump is important so that plant can save energy from using the centrifugal pump application. Moreover, maintenance centrifugal pumps also necessary to ensure the plant production.
Designing pump is the first aspect to have efficient equipment so that energy use to convert potential fluid energy is efficient. Theoretically, pumps can be designed through the two dimensional momentum analysis and Euler equation. However, those approaches are using several assumptions making actual centrifugal pump performance far from the design. It is likely happened because the fluid flow inside the centrifugal pump is complex. Researchers are interested to know about the characteristic of flow inside the pump so that they can design pump better.
It is believed that pumps equipment is installed almost 80 percent of rotating equipment in fertilizer plant like PT. Pupuk Kaltim. Therefore, probability to have trouble in the plant because of pumps is high. Engineers have responsibility to fix the trouble quickly and ensure the plant production still continue without any pumps trouble. Deciding the correct maintenance activity to fix the trouble is easier and more quickly if the engineers know the work principle of the pumps. Researchers exist with their experiment to help engineers get better understanding how the pumps work.
There are many research to know about pump performance and also fluid flow inside the impeller. Several geometry change of pump also is tested to determine the influence of the geometry to the pump performance. There are many ways to know the fluid flow characteristic in the impeller. In the past many researchers used hot film sensor to know the velocity of the fluid, then as technology improved, Laser is used to measure velocity fluid in the impeller. Recently, Researchers using particle image to determine the fluid velocity in the impeller.