Expert Systems This Has The Word Format Of The Assignment Attached And Includes Diagrams

2954 words - 12 pages

Expert SystemsABSTRACTExpert systems are used in all sectors of organizations to help aid users with their work. This paper will be giving a brief introduction to expert systems and will be looking back at the history of expert systems. This paper will also look at the characteristics of expert systems and what they are used for. The advantages and disadvantages of expert systems will also be discussed in this paper.[1] IntroductionExpert systems are programs that provide the type of advice that would be expected from a human expert. It is also known as knowledge based system, expert systems are able to store and manipulate knowledge so that they can help a user solve a problem or make a decision.Expert systems technology drives from the research discipline of Artificial Intelligence (AI): It is said by Jackson (1998, pg2) "Artificial Intelligence is a branch of computer science concerned with the design and implementation of programs which are capable of emulating human cognitive skills such as problem solving, visual perception and language understanding"The main features of expert systems are:·It is limited to a specific domain·It is typically rule based·It ca reason with certain data·It delivers advice·It explains reasoning to the userTypical tasks for and expert system involve:·The interpretation of data such as solar signals·Diagnosis of malfunction such as equipment faults or human diseases·Structural analysis of complex objects such as chemical compounds·Configuration of complex objects such as computer systems·Planning of sequences of actions such as might be performed by robotsGenerally speaking, expert systems overall performance depends on the knowledge it can bring to bear on a problem to be solved. The quality of internal data processing in turn depends upon knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation and reasoning strategy. Performance also depends upon the quality of data input.One of the most powerful attributes of expert systems is the ability to explain reasoning. Since the system remembers its logical chain of reasoning, a user may ask for an explanation of a recommendation and the system will display the factors it considered in providing a particular recommendation. This attribute enhances user confidence in the recommendation and acceptance of the expert system.[2] History of Expert SystemsDendral was the earliest known expert system, which was built in 1965. It was developed by Edward Feigenbaum; it was used for scientific reasoning in organic chemistry. It took over a decade to gather information from relevant chemists, genetics and computers scientists.Then MACSYMA, was designed in 1968 by Carl Engleman, William Martin and Joel Moses. It was a large interactive mathematics expert system used by MIT manipulates mathematical expressions symbolically. It had a very powerful problem-solving program with the capability of performing over 600 distinct...

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