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Explain Bentham’s Account Of Utilitarianism Essay

1766 words - 7 pages

Essay:Some people take for granted that most families are nuclear. This is what is desirable from the perspective of modernist like the New Right and those who believe in the neo conventional family like Chester. Other sociologists say that we live in a postmodern fragmented society where there are many different family structures due to a range of different reasons. This essay will assess these two perspectives using a range of different sociologist.In the 21st century, there is more variation in family structure than ever before. Therefore by definition family has become a much broader phrase which include; nuclear, lone parents, reconstituted, ethnic minorities, same sex, extended, bean pole, boomerang and many more types of family units.This postmodern world is growing industrially, consequently the extended family (which is a family household of three generations) that was seen as the basic family structure in pre-industrial society, is not as significant as it used to be. The nuclear family structure (is a heterosexual couple and their dependent children which) has developed into the major family structure in most industrialised societies. Parsons explains this through his "functional fit" theory whereby the particular structure and function of a given type of family will 'fit' the needs of the society in which it is found. According to Parsons there are two basic types of society: modern industrial society and traditional pre-industrial society.He argues that the nuclear family fits the needs of industrial society and is dominating family type in that society. The basic relationship between the family and industrialisation is one that has caused the family to progressively lose many of its functions as they have been taken-over by other institutions such as welfare, schools and hospitals in society.While extended family fits the needs of pre-industrial society, as the quantity of work was equally shared among the large family. Conjugal roles were more equal in pre-industrial times, as mentioned in Item A functionalist and the new right would view this as undermining the expressive and instrumental roles - which they consider essential for the well being of individuals and social stability. Children were treated like mini adults who dressed and worked the same. While the elderly that could no longer farm took over child rearing tasks in return for financial support. The extended family is not simply a result of pre-industrial society but additionally a consequence of ethical culture.Industrial society has two essential needs: a geographically mobile workforce and a socially mobile workforce. The pre-industrial family type (i.e. the extended family) had to adapt in these two ways to become suitable for the industrial society. The family changed its structure to gain finance that would be earned through industrialisation. In order to gain said finance families moved from rural areas to urban areas towards the work, however, extended families...

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