This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Explain How Nutrients Are Obtained From Our Diet, And The Contribution Of Each Nutrient To The Aerobic Respiratory Pathway

3401 words - 14 pages

1.Digestion, Nutrition & BondsFoodstuffs mainly consist of biopolymers (complex carbohydrates, proteins and lipids); large molecules made of monomers (sugars, amino acids and fatty acids/glycerol) linked together by chemical bonds. Bonds are of vital importance in living systems, as they are broken in digestion, to provide energy - they are exergonic reactions - and constructed in repair and growth - endergonic reactions - where the energy previously generated is harnessed.Carbohydrates®Monosaccharides ®4 kcals g-1Proteins®Amino Acids (AAs)®4 kcals g-1Lipids® Fatty Acids (FAs) and Glycerol®9 kcals g-1Whilst several bond classification systems exist the most important in physiology is the covalent bond; where two atoms 'share' outer shell electrons, making both more stable. This forms the basis of peptide; proteins, ester; fats and saccharide: carbohydrate, biopolymer backbones. The ionic bond; electrons are transferred between atoms comes a close second, they are key to the oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions, figure 1, of cellular energy generating systems whose activity is harnessed and then stored within adenosine triphosphate (ATP), (Houston, 2001).They are also vital to the formation of ions within body fluids, e.g. Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, H+; all play a direct or indirect role in the energy generating pathways and in other vital areas, e.g. nerve conduction.Table 1: The main NutrientsNutrientNotesCarbohydrates -Mostly in the form of complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides)Proteins -Twenty amino acids are found in human proteins, only 12 of which can be produced in the body. The remaining eight are the essential amino acids and must be dietary supplied.Lipids -Usually in the form of triglycerides, which become fatty acids (FAs) and glycerolMinerals -There are twelve key minerals, which must by dietary supplied; Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorous, Iron, Potassium, Zinc, Iodine, Copper, Molybdenum, Manganese, Chromium and Selenium.Vitamins -Small organic molecules that facilitate metabolism by serving as "co-enzymes". Thirteen of these are needed for a well-balanced diet, of which twelve are viewed dietary essential in adults l: A, D, E, K, B1, B2, B3, B4, B6, B12, Folic Acid, Biotin and C.Source: Author from various sources listed in the bibliographyOf secondary importance is Hydrogen bonding; weak electrostatic attractions between an electronegative element - nitrogen or oxygen - and an electropositive element - hydrogen - also give 3-D structure to all biopolymers and play an important role in cell membrane integrity and ligand/receptor protein binding.The B vitamins are particularly vital to the body, because they perform several roles as co-enzymes and being water-soluble need to be replaced daily, table 2. Indeed because of this many place greater emphasis on vitamins in the diet whereas in fact there are many more minerals required for correct bodily functions, e.g. Zinc is an essessential component of more than...

Find Another Essay On Explain how nutrients are obtained from our diet, and the contribution of each nutrient to the aerobic respiratory pathway

Describe several language techniques used in each text. Explain why they are important

551 words - 2 pages From the perspective of soldiers we experience what men suffered during World War I. Through the vivid imagery and the dramatic language in the poems 'Attack' and 'Exposure', Siegfried Sassoon and Wilfred Owen share their views on war. That all war is- is fear, misery and death.Sasson descibes a battlefield where men are on the attack. They follow behind a tank, fighting their way up a "scarred slope", clambering over barbed wire, right into the

How does IR Theory explain the United Nation’s contribution to the maintenance of international peace and security?

2039 words - 9 pages How does IR Theory explain the United Nation’s contribution to the maintenance of international peace and security? “More than ever before in human history, we share a common destiny. We can master it only if we face it together. And that is why we have the United Nations.” (Annan: 2001) It is generally considered that international organisations ought to stand accountable for the preservation of global stability and peace, be this

We are what we eat F --An analysis of the importance of nutrients to human health

1256 words - 5 pages . These chemical substances are called nutrients. With the improvement of living conditions, people realize that setting up a nutrient diet becomes very important nowadays. In this case, the essay will analyze the importance of nutrients to human health in the following three aspects: the function of nutrients, the relationship between nutrients and health and the importance to form a nutrient diet.It is essential to know the function of nutrients

Sorption and the Process of Nutrient Cycling

1591 words - 7 pages not recognize the target sites so the molecule is able to persist in the soil (Bladock and Skjemstad, 2000; Brady and Weil, 2008). The slowed rates of decomposition resulting from the sorption of nutrients onto mineral and organic particulates have important implications for both the short and long-term availability of plant nutrients as well as the fate and transport of chemicals in the ecosystem. Sorption and Nutrient Cycling The soil

Finding Identity in the Pathway from Slavery to Literacy

1289 words - 5 pages Americans to discover their individual true identity. The whites defined the slaves’ identity as nothing but servants to them. To the slaves, a symbol of hope was the chance to become literate —learning how to read and write. Frederick Douglass, an African American slave, believed that literacy was “the pathway from slavery to freedom” (945). Through literacy, slaves like Phillis Wheatley and Frederick Douglass were able to define their identity

How are generic techniques used to shape our response to one character from the novel "Lord of the Rings": Fellowship of the ring by JRR Tolkien?

1631 words - 7 pages falls and with his last breath he tells the remaining members of the fellowship to flee. Gandalf is left in darkness, never to be seen again and the party departs from the mines in grief.Through the course of the novel, The Fellowship of the Ring, By JRR Tolkien, the meaning of Gandalf’s actions and speech are greatly enhanced and strengthened through the presence of setting. In Hobbiton, the green and utopian setting makes Gandalf appear as a

Identify and explain how technology was used in each of the following policing eras - Kaplan University, CJ216 - Essay

879 words - 4 pages . (Reuters, T. 2017) After the suspect has been booked, he will be held in custody until his arraignment. An arraignment is a formal reading of the defendant’s charges done by a criminal court judge, where the defendant will verify who he is, and will have a chance to plea "guilty", "not guilty", or "no contest". During this time the defendant can request legal counsel, either from a private attorney, or a public defender. The judge will then announce the

Explain how the neoclassical growth model can be extended to enhance our understanding of economic growth

1858 words - 8 pages Explain how the neoclassical growth model can be extended to enhance our understanding of economic growth. INTRODUCTION AIM AND OBJECTIVE The aim of this essay is to clarify how the neoclassical growth model can be used to explain economic growth by taking into account two new inputs: Natural Resources (R) and Land (T) by substantiating it with relevant research. THE NEOCLASSICAL GROWTH MODEL According to the Neoclassical Solow Model

(i.)<Tab/>Explain Themistokles' contribution to Athens before and during the Persian invasion of 480/479 BC

508 words - 2 pages Themistokles was the most significant leader in Athens during the 480/479 Persian invasion, as he was the main contributor to Greek victory. Despite the Greek success at Marathon, he prepared Athens for future threats from Persia.Thucydides says that the Athenians built triremes "at the persuasion of Themistokles" to meet the possible threat of Darius and these were used to defeat the Persians at sea. Themistokles "turned them,[Athenians] to use

Critically compare and contrast the ‘Best Fit’, ‘Best Practice’ and ‘Resource-Based View’, models of HRM strategy and explain how each approach is argued to contribute to improved organisational...

2484 words - 10 pages Critically compare and contrast the 'Best Fit', 'Best Practice' and 'Resource-Based View', models of HRM strategy and explain how each approach is argued to contribute to improved organisational performance.Strategy is the skill and planning that are involved in governing resources. In a business sense this relates to "a set of ideas, policies and practices which management adopt in order to achieve a people management objective" in studying

Explain what is meant by the term 'social construction' and consider how it has been used to further our understanding of the concept of identity

1162 words - 5 pages construction" (Phoenix, 2002, P70), "the ideas we take for granted, how we treat each other and are treated, and power relations in sociality are all constructed through language. It provides the categories and concepts from which we created and maintain our ideas and beliefs, and is crucial to our interactions" (Phoenix, 2002, P70).According to social constructionists the focus should be on the influence of the social and cultural contest in understanding

Similar Essays

Outline Any Two Theoretical Approaches To Identity And Explain How Each Has Contributed To Our Understanding Of This Concept

1120 words - 4 pages From the Psychosocial and Social Identity Theory (SIT) perspectives there different approaches to what makes identity uniquely individual to humans and different from other animals. Each has contributed to our understanding of identity in different ways. Using observational and research methods psychological theorists' show that humans do not have a fixed identity but that identity is complex and diverse, changing throughout a person's life

What Are The Benefits Of Social Science Research? Using Literature And Practical Examples Show How Research Has Influenced Our Understanding Of Each Other And Society

1159 words - 5 pages throughout lifetime or generations, these studies tend to be more accurate. Types of longitudinal study are cohort studies and panel studies. Descriptive research is a sort of conclusive research that aims to describe characteristics and data of the item being studied.The Purpose of social research is to:•Explain social life and explain why we do things.•Understand human behaviour and actions.•Make predictions.•Develop and/or test

There Are Several Settings In Our Short Stories The Yellow Wallpaper."The Storm" The Cask Of Amontillado.How Was Each Setting Is Vital For Each Story

733 words - 3 pages most of her time and this iswhere she goes from postpartum depression to psychosis. In the nursery is where the yellowwallpaper is and it's where her obsession about the wallpaper grows. The description of thewallpaper is also a description of our narrator "It is dull enough to confuse the eye in following,pronounced enough to constantly irritate and provoke study, and when you follow the lameuncertain curves for a little distance they suddenly

Explaining The Value Of Our Money. It Compares And Contrasts How We Obtained Our Monetary System

582 words - 2 pages services. Our Federal Reserve Notes have economic value and intrinsic values. These "Federal Reserve Notes" are backed up by Intrinsic value isn't the same thing as economic value. People are willing to take money in exchange because it is useful to them. They trust that they will in turn be able to exchange it for something else they want. An "exchange" isn't always the same thing as a "trade". If a good or service is exchanged for money, that is