Considering high ratio of SFA to unsaturated fatty acids in Britney’s diet, she might be at risk of some health complications. These include, but are not limited to: impaired insulin sensitivity (Vessby 2001), elevated level of LDL cholesterol and inflammation of adipose tissue (Poledene 2013). Thus, if the primary type of fat in her diet will not change, Britney will have greater chance of developing coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes (Poledene 2013; Sudheedran 2010; Funaki 2009). Table 1 presents foods that are high in SFA in Britney’s diet. 73
Table 1. Amount of saturated fatty acids in Britney’s meals. Values are taken from National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, 2011 or product packages. N/A- amount is not specified in the diary.
Name of the product Amount of Saturated Fatty Acids per 100g of the product Amount of Saturated Fatty Acids per serving in Britney’s diary
Jam doughnut 4.8g 4.1g
Chocolate cake 5.9g 16.2g
Hawaiian pizza (ham and pineapple, Tesco Stone baked) 3.9g 16g
Chocolate fingers (Cadbury) 10,8g 10,8g
Rolo 14.5g 6,9g (1 package that contains 48g)
Bacon (Tesco) 5.8g N/A
Bourbon biscuits (Tesco) 12.8g 12.8g
Sausage (Pork, Richmond) 8.1g 4g
Cheese (Mature Cheddar, Cathedral) 21.7g N/A
Milk chocolate digestive biscuits (McVitie’s) 12.4g 41.1g
Terry’s All Gold 15g 57g
Vanilla ice cream 6.8gt N/A
Chocolate sauce (Tesco) 4.8g N/A
Mars bar 8.3g 4.8g
Utterly Butterly (St Ivel) 12.7g N/A
Specific structure of lipoproteins allows distribution of water-insoluble lipids within the body. Hydrophobic core of lipoprotein contains triglycerides and cholesterol esters. Its hydrophilic surface is made of cholesterol, phospholipids and apoproteins (apoproteins determine metabolic pathway of lipoprotein) (Geissler et al., 2005). Very low density lipoproteins (vLDL) are produced in the liver and along with chyomicrons they are main transporter of lipids. Low density lipoproteins (LDL) (formed by delipidation cascade of vLDL, which is initiated by arterial lipoprotein lipase (LPL)) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) are responsible for cholesterol transportation (Geissler et al., 2005). 78
High intake of SFA raises LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by downregulation of hepatic LDL receptors (LDLR) and increasing the synthesis of LDL. SFA causes downregulation mainly by decreasing LDL receptors synthesis level and protein and mRNA abundance (Fernandez et al., 2005). Although it is well established that fatty acids affects at least 4 transcription factors
(the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, liver X receptors, hepatic nuclear
factor-4, and sterol regulatory element binding proteins) mechanism of increasing synthesis of LDL levels by SFA is still not entirely described, and more researches is needed (Fernandez et al., 2005).
Invitro (Kuo et al., 1990) and animal-based (Tripodi et al., 1991) studies suggest that SFA affect LDL-C levels also by the impact on cell membrane fluidity. SFA due to their chemical...