Explain How Andrew Marvell Uses Allegory And/Or Classical Allusion To Direct The Reader's Response To History In One Or More Of His Civil War Poems'.

1322 words - 5 pages

In his poem The Nymph complaining for the death of her Faun Andrew Marvell puts allegory and classical allusion to work with great effect and I will show in this essay how he directs the reader to see the historical references he was alluding to. Andrew Marvell's father was a minister and Marvell would probably have heard allegorical interpretation on a daily basis as well as in sermons. Coupling this with his education I would suggest that he would have taken allegory in his stride. Marvell used classical allusion extensively in his works and linked it with allegory to point to his views on religious history as well as the events in his own period of time. It can also be seen clearly that the use of past and present tense throughout the poem helps to confirm the conveyance of feeling.This poem appears to have been written in the tradition of Ovid's pastoral allegory. Bruce King in his book Marvell's Allegorical Poetry comments:Even if we were not aware of allegorisations of Ovid and the tradition of pastoral allegory, we would be forced by the pressure of Marvell's language to see a religious significance in The Nymph. (p. 47)Some of the words used by Marvell point clearly to the religious significance suggested by King and some of these would be: "Pray'rs", "virgin", "Stain" and "holy". I would also suggest that not only can allegory be seen here but also classical allusion to Ovid and Virgil as well.Marvell starts The Nymph in a manner that is abrupt and full of allusion. The first lines 'The wanton Troopers riding by/Have shot my Faun and it will dye./Ungentle men! They cannot thrive/ To kill thee.' (1-4.) can be read as the beginning of a tale of a girl grieving over the death of an animal. However, to look at the poem as Marvell intended it to be looked at one can see a different version emerging. The first four lines along with the next twenty-one are a lamentation. The lament is probably because Marvell feels there is no visible future for him and relates this by allegory to religious history. I suggest that he alludes to the crucifixion of Christ and this is reinforced by the fact that the death of the fawn is the main event and this is because Christ's death is the event in history. The word 'Deodands' (Line 16) is a theological word meaning an animal that has killed a human being forfeited to the crown and sacrificed as an atonement and in the context of the poem could relate to Christ being offered as a sacrificial deodand and is used to save man from God's anger. Bruce King goes further and states that:The poem begins by recalling the Crucifixion, moves backward in time to the Incarnation, alludes to the life of Christ and His presence with His mother and the early church, and ends with His death and Ascension. (King, p.49)I would point out that a very strong allegorical context is apparent and that the classical allusion is cleverly interweaved with this aspect. There is further evidence that shows Marvell's allegorical expertise....

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