'explain How Various Key Characteristics Of Primates Facilitate Tool Using Behaviour.'

1030 words - 4 pages

Animals, similarly to humans, have the symbolic ability.Symbol is a thing which represents something else and it has separate existence from the thing it represents.Primates such as monkeys and apes are being in dispute with other mammals in the development of only one organ of the body ,which is the brain.They have the ability to understand the "cause-and-effect" mechanism(the ability to solve a problem) and the ability to plan and simulate actions ahead of carrying them out(use of the sticks as tools)More specific,only common chimpanzees and humans, among the great apes, regularly invest much time in play with detached objects.The accidental explanation of the paradox that gorillas regularly show skills in tool-use and even tool-making captivity may be that young gorillas also play with objects, but yet tools seem to have no part in their natural lives.(Mc Grew 1989).So because the chimpanzees play a lot with objects, they have the opportunity to discover how to solve a problem with their food for example, and it is part of their normal behaviour.Byrne said that the point is that so long as they can do it, they are capable of solving problems.As mentioned before, for animals using tools seems most likely to offer a window into their understanding of cause-and-effect relationships in the mechanical world.A "tool" is, somewhat arbitrarily, defined as a detached object applied to another object in order to achieve a result.Many animals, from insects to apes ,use detached objects as aids in their actions such as weapons, hammers , anvils, lures, probes, sponges, and many more others.Three things are usually true for tool-using.Firstly,that the habit is not shared by closely related species.Secondly, that the individuals of the species use one type of tool and for only one particular purpose and thirdly, that all individuals use the tool in the same way, given the same opportunities.And from these facts, one question comes in light; whether animal tool-use necessarily reflects intelligence.The human brain is much less advanced at birth than the brains of the monkeys and apes.In a new born chimpanzee the brain forms around 46 per cent of its adult weight, but in a human baby the brain forms around only 25 per cent of that weight.(Blackfan 1933, Schultz 1941).Using these proportions as an indication of maturity we can calculate that our brain is not as mature as the brain of a neonatal chimpanzee until we are 6 months old or so.(Passingham 1975).All the primates that have been tested improve over a series of strangeness problems, indicating that they have grasped the relevant principle.Rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees have been shown to be able to learn the rule under some conditions when racoons and cats fail to do so.Of the primates lemurs and squirrel monkeys show less improvement than cebus monkeys or rhesus monkeys.Of course, chimpanzees show their superiority on this and on some other tests, mastering the strangeness principle with the relative...

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