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Explain The Basis Of The Jacobite Movement In Scotland

1995 words - 8 pages

The term Jacobite is taken from the Latin word Jacobus, meaning James, so Jacobites are the people committed to the return of the Stuarts in the original form of James VII and II. Jacobitism is a term that brings a myriad of images with it. Admiration, glamour and nationalism to name a few, but what was Jacobitism and why did it seem to capture the imagination of so many people? To try and discover this, one must look at the roots and the basis of this movement.According to Bruce Lenman , "Mary (Queen of Scots) was the ancestress of all the Jacobite Pretenders." This one statement indicates how far back the Stuart line goes. The rule of the Stuarts began with James VI of Scotland, James I of England who was Mary Queen of Scots son. Queen Elizabeth died in 1603, and James took over from her. James made many enemies during his reign, including the infamous Guy Fawkes. James also passed an act of parliament in 1611 to have Latin Bibles translated into English.In 1625 Charles I came to the throne and married the Roman Catholic Henrietta Maria. Charles was thought to be trying to introduce Catholic ideas into England, and matters came to a head in 1642 when he tried to curb parliamentary powers and extend his own. Civil war erupted and Oliver Cromwell took the king prisoner in 1646. Charles I was executed in 1649 and Cromwell became Lord Protector and ruled until he died in 1658. His son Richard took over, but in 1660 the son of Charles I was summoned from his home in France, and crowned Charles II. The restoration of Charles II was declared the new beginning in Scotland. It was believed that the king would acknowledge former loyalties because after all, the Scots had fought for and recognised him. It was not to be, quarrels erupted about land lost during the commonwealth period. Episcopacy was restored in Scotland and those who failed to recognise it lost their way of living. However, the change did not go any further than this and Presbyterian Shorter Catechism was still taught. When the leader of the moderate Presbyterians went to the king and was made archbishop of St. Andrews, the Covenanters started an armed revolt which was soon quelled. 1681 and Charles II appointed James, Duke of York, as royal commissioner in Scotland. James was a Catholic, and during the next four years, many Covenanters died for their ideals.In 1685 James became king, and was known as James VII of Scotland and II of England. James began to install army officers, with Catholic sympathies, so that by 1688 a significant number were in place in Ireland as well as Scotland and England. Many people in authority were by this time getting worried that James may try and force full Catholicism into the country. We must bear in mind here that Scotland only had something like a 2% Catholic population, and when James wife gave birth to a son in June of 1688, fears culminated into revolution. T.C. Smout says, "the revolution of 1688-1690 was a frenzied popular rejection of the king's...

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