Explain The Causes For The Failure Of White Revolution? ( In Pahlavi Dynasty)

5848 words - 23 pages

Explain the causes for the failure of White Revolution?M.AbdollahiMay 1999IntroductionThe circumstances of the events between the years 1960 and 1963 are considered as the background and basis for the proclamation of the White Revolution. The general atmosphere of political uncertainty and poor economic prospects reduced domestic saving and investment. Thus the inflationary pressure continued and the cost of living rose day by day. In addition the Iranian economic situation was conditioned by the political conflict.In 1960, one of the most important events was the election of the twentieth Majles. The two parties that the Shah created, the Melliun (Nationalist Party) and the Mardom (People Party) were rivals. Under U.S. pressure, the Shah allowed independent Second National Front candidates to enter the race. Despite the promise of the Shah that the elections would take place in greater freedom than in the past, it seemed that he hand picked all the candidates of both parties and as the elections proceeded, it became clear that it was his authority that was influencing the result. Thus, the Shah cancelled the elections and on 10 January, 1961,held new ones.Another important event in this period was the appointment of Sharif Emami to the post of Prime Minister on 3o August 1960. Hence, as Ghods explained, because "Emami was affiliated with no political party and had close ties to the religious establishment, but, because he did not implement any reforms, he failed to achieve either politic popularity or U.S. support." Thus he resigned from his post on 4th May 1961.On the 6th May 1961, Dr 'Ali Amini replaced Emami and for the first time promised a "White Revolution". Amini was one of the American favourites in Iran. Abrahamian explained that "the United States favoured Amini for a number of reasons. As ambassador in Washington during the late 1950s, he had won the confidence of the State Department. As the chief Iranian negotiator with the oil companies in 1954, he had shown that he had the strength of character to take unpopular decisions."During the period that Amini held the post of Prime Minister, he began one of the most important reforms in the social life of Iran under the name of the Land Reform. This reform was designed to create a population of small landowners. He was serious about this programme of reform and forced the Shah to dissolve the Majles, since the influence of the landlords there would be an obstacle to reform. However, within a few months of Amini becoming Prime Minister the situation began to change. He had clashed with the Shah by insisting on a reduction of the military budget. On this occasion, one of the opposition parties, Second National Front was with him because the Shah had failed to hold free elections.On 10th April 1962, the Shah had a visit from Washington. As the result of this visit, a general agreement on the military, economic affairs and a reaffirmation of the bilateral security arrangements between the two...

Find Another Essay On Explain the causes for the failure of White Revolution? ( in Pahlavi dynasty)

The Causes of White Teens Dropout in the Delta.

1497 words - 6 pages Dropping out is defined as leaving school without a high school diploma or equivalent credential such as a General Educational Development (GED) certificate as defined by the National Center for Education Statistics. To see high school students make the ultimate decision to give up is really disappointing. There are numerous of reasons that causes white teens to dropout in the Delta; such as drug addiction, pregnancy, academic issues, the school

Essay about the causes for revolution in pre-communist Russia

928 words - 4 pages In 1917, a country covering thousands of miles with millions of citizens changed radically in under a year. Through political and military means, the Russian state, its people; and the world had transformed from a crumbling empire of royal dictators into an idealistic young nation. The revolution had many causes and factors, many leaders and heroes for every faction. The revolution struck with speed and intensity, and when it was over, the

Causes of the French Revolution

1210 words - 5 pages Young's Travels in France, "There is an injustice in levying the amount each person must pay" which indicates that the taxes being placed on the third estate was incredibly unfair, and was one of the causes leading to the French Revolution.Another major contribution to the formation of the revolution was the American Revolution. Ever since the arrival of the British in 1620, North America was a national gold mine for land. Many countries wanted this

Causes of the French Revolution

906 words - 4 pages years before the revolution, France was in huge amounts of debt, and this was brought on by a variety of factors and emphasized by the Seven Years War and other various conflicts around the world. France had been at war for nearly 50 out of the past 100 years, and by the year 1763 the national debt was at 2.34 billion livres. The heavy taxation of the common people and the financial irresponsibly of the government was a major cause of the French

Causes of the American Revolution

543 words - 2 pages The American Revolution was a dramatic change in the political, social, and economic system of New England. It was not a bloody revolution; on the contrary it is unique because it was not as violence as other revolutions we know (French, Russia and China). The American Revolution had many causes. Long-term social, economic, and political changes in the colonies before 1750 provided the basis for an independent nation with representative

Causes of the Russian Revolution

984 words - 4 pages Causes of the Russian Revolution Consider the following causes of the October 1917 Russian Revolution: Poor Living and Working Conditions Effects of the First World War The Appeal of Lenin and the Bolsheviks The Limitations of the 1917 Provisional Government Was any one of these causes more important than the others to the Bolsheviks’ seizure of power in 1917? Explain your answer. A1

Causes of the American Revolution

643 words - 3 pages On July 2, 1776, the second continental congress voted that the American Colonies were free from British influence. (Danzer,102) On July 4, two days later, they adopted the Declaration of Independence. These two events would begin what would become one of, if not the most important events in American History. It began the war of Independence, when America won its right to be free. There were many causes for the American Revolution. However

Causes of The French Revolution.

526 words - 2 pages A revolution broke out in France in 1789 between the people of first and second Estates and the people of the Third Estate because the people of the Third Estate were treated incredibly unfair so they came together and took matters into their own hands. The three most important causes of the French Revolution were the bad economy and unfair taxes paid by the Third Estate, lack of voice and rights, and the idea of enlightenment and the

Causes of the French Revolution

1119 words - 5 pages Historians have long debated the causes of the French Revolution. Perhaps this is because it was a result of a multitude of factors as opposed to just a single one. A combination of several social, political and economic causes led to upheaval of the Ancien Régime, the system of law and government in France prior to the French Revolution in 1789. During the eighteenth century, French society was divided into three classes

Causes of the French Revolution - 1927 words

1927 words - 8 pages Causes of the French Revolution The French Revolution happened in France around the period 1789-92 (although these dates are disputed by historians), and resulted in the overthrow of the French monarchy and the Ancien Régime (the system of government). The monarchy in France had been established for many centuries, and the causes of the Revolution were deeply-rooted, including the problems with the Ancien Régime, the growth of nationalism

Causes of the French Revolution - 1255 words

1255 words - 5 pages Analyze the various causes of the French Revolution. Include social, economic and ideological factors Just as any story has a climax; one can deduce that the 17th and 18th centuries were the turning point for most of European history; however, different places experienced this change in different ways. As the previous discoveries and inventions were made by remarkable scientists like Galileo, the Enlightenment was the next logical step in the

Similar Essays

The Failure Of The Qing Dynasty

1255 words - 5 pages The Failure of the Qing Dynasty Although some short term successes were achieved for China when dealing with western demands of diplomatic relations and free trade, in the sense that it retained their pride in their tributary systems, such responses were in flawed in the long term. Focusing on the time period 1793-1839, this essay will investigate what were the western attempts and demands in diplomatic relations and

Failure Of The Revolution In Animal Farm

646 words - 3 pages The animals in the book “Animal Farm” hoped to achieve unity, equality. trust/truth, prosperity, better quality of life, freedom and individuality, in terms of the revolution. This was achieved at the beginning of the revolution, which made it a success, but in the end the revolution was a failure. The farm, in many ways, was very prosperous when the revolution began. The animals were given an education, “the reading and writing classes were

The Failure Of Technology In White Noise By Don Delillo

1050 words - 4 pages failure of the high-tech treatment. Throughout Delillo''s novel, we are shown that as the white noise of life continually bombards and conditions us, we are deprived of a sense of immediacy. Ultimately, we are denied a real, conscious life of our own. This same white noise is, ironically, also responsible for the random occurrences which act to disrupt itself. We see this in the novel where the products on the supermarket shelves are quietly

What Caused The Romanov Dynasty To Fall? Explain The Fall And Decline Of The Romanov Dynasty.

1710 words - 7 pages following strategies:*To introduce laws which would make the duma a weak parliament*To introduce agrarian reforms to win back the support of the peasantry*To instruct Peter Stolypin his prime ministerPeasants resented the strip framing that gave them only scattered parcels of land. Stolypin had hoped that his plans for agrarian reform would succeed in ending the major causes of peasant discontent. But Stolypin believed that it would take about 20