This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Explain The Effect Of Conditioned Drug Tolerance And Why It May Important In Cases Of Drug Overdose.

2257 words - 9 pages

Explain the effect of conditioned drug tolerance and why it may be important in cases of drug overdose.Before one can go onto explain the effects of conditioned drug tolerance and its importance in drug overdose, it is vital that key terms are clarified and how they interact with each other. Drug tolerance, can therefore be defined as a "state of decreased sensitivity to a drug that develops as a result of exposure" (Pinel 2000), and it can be demonstrated in two different ways: by showing that a given dose of the drug has less effect than it had before drug exposure or by showing that it takes more of the drug to produce the same effect. This in turn can lead to consequences such as increased exposure to one drug, can produce tolerance to other drugs that may act in the same way, and also that tolerance often develops to some effects of a drug but not to others. In other words, if a person does not understand that tolerance to one drug differs for different drugs and that they cause diverse effects then this would lead to severe consequences, such as drug overdose.It is important that to note that learning is vital to drug tolerance, and it is "likely that Pavlovian conditioning contributes to tolerance to any drug" (Siegel, 1982). Pavlovian conditioning is a form of classical conditioning which demonstrates the process of associative learning that occurs in a variety of organisms allowing them to adapt to their environment by making these learnt associations between environmental cues and physiological responses (Kalat, 2001).This theory was used by Siegel (1984) in relation to drug tolerance by using various animal studies, and through this he received some heavy criticism (1984). Siegel's (1976) theory can also be applied to humans where he applies it to non-opiate drugs such as alcohol (Le AD, 1979) thus accounting for cases of human drug over dose (Siegel, 1982; Siegel, 1984).A relationship can be seen between the brain, the environment and behaviour, and this is shown in the setting where the drug is administered (Pinel,1997; Rosenweig, Leiman & Breedlove, 1999). The brain is able to adapt to the presence of a drug by producing biological changes, which accounts for drug tolerance in a consistent environment. This can be illustrated through the two types of tolerance; metabolic and functional tolerance. Metabolic tolerance involves changes that reduce the drug's concentration, preparing the body for the breakdown of the drug as functional tolerance involves changes that reduce the drug's effectiveness and this is achieved by changing the body's neuronal response to it (Pinel, 1997).Learning is vital with regard to conditioned drug tolerance. Pavlov suggested that "the administration of a drug can be viewed as a conditioning trial, with environmental cues uniquely present at the time of drug administration constituting the conditional stimulus and the actual pharmacological stimulation constituting the unconditional stimulus"(Siegel,...

Find Another Essay On Explain the effect of conditioned drug tolerance and why it may important in cases of drug overdose.

From your understanding of leadership, explain why it is important to attend to both task and process issues.

2253 words - 9 pages words the leader is a person who influences others to achieve a goal, and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. A lot of people tend to explain leadership in a very easy way so that the individuals around them have the motivation in wanting to become leaders but it's easily said than done as leadership is difficult to practice as it involves a lot of hard work and determination. A lot of factors are related

From Your Understanding of Leadership, Explain Why It Is Important to Attend to Both Task and Process Issues

2044 words - 8 pages influences others to achieve a goal, and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent.A lot of people tend to explain leadership in a very easy way so that the individuals around them have the motivation in wanting to become leaders but it's easily said than done as leadership is difficult to practice as it involves a lot of hard work and determination. A lot of factors are related to leadership but the two most

This report explain what is marijuana and how people think of it. It also explain how it is a drug use for many years and smuggle here to U.S

903 words - 4 pages Cannabis Sativa (marijuana) has been thought to be an illegal and very harmful drug for many years. But as you read this report you will learn that marijuana has been around for many years (most years legal) and isn't as harmful as some people may think.Marijuana has been used for many things in the past, including medicine, hemp rope, crude cloth and enjoyment. Now it is mainly used as a narcotic. Marijuana is an illegal weed that grows up to

Explain why is it important to analyse deviance in society. Using examples to illustrate your answer, discuss what such an analysis can tell us about the social and political implications of deviance

1372 words - 5 pages norms and values vary across nations and culture. Various forms of action or behaviour may well be respected in one context, or by certain groups, but may also be viewed negatively by others (Giddens 2001:687). In this essay, we will look at the significance of analyzing deviance through its functions in society, the impact of power on what constitutes deviance, where two theoretical approaches will be highlighted, namely the Conflict Theory and

Describe one important scene or event from "Romeo And Juliet" and explain why it was important

806 words - 3 pages The love encompassing the story of "Romeo and Juliet", by William Shakespeare, is vividly portrayed in Act 2 Scene 2 where two main characters, Romeo and Juliet, have a secret meeting in which they reveal the passion they have for each other. It is important as the audience is able to discern the escalating passion in this scene, which embellishes the play mainly consisting of conflicts surrounding the love. The importance of the family feud, a

Describe the setting of "Of Mice and Men" by John Steinbeck and explain why this is important

645 words - 3 pages characters to work their way out of being a ranch worker, "earning a keep" and "live off the fatta the land". This was George and Lennie's dream, however was soon forgotten when events did not happen as planed. The fact that the novella is set in the 1930s, during the depression, makes it even harder to work their way out of being a ranch worker and accomplishing their dreams. This is why it is very important that the novella has been set when it is

Describe the beginning and ending of a text, explain why its important. "Of Mice and Men", by John Steinbeck

905 words - 4 pages In the novella "Of Mice and Men" by John Steinbeck the beginning and ending is very important. In the beginning Steinbeck describes the setting of the Salinas River and the environment it is in, stating how quiet and undisturbed the area is. This is also where the two main characters, George and Lennie are introduced. In this section the reader is also introduced to the way in which Steinbeck writes, using a lot of dialogue and literal language

Drug Cartels Effect on the Economy

849 words - 4 pages The Mexican drug cartel has been estimated to have been profiting thirty billion dollars a year – yes, BILLION. The United States has also been estimated to generously have taken part in ten to anywhere up to possibly twenty-five of that thirty billion per year! That kind of money can make almost anyone contemplate if college is the right path for them. It also gives you a small understanding as to why some of these underprivileged people

Explain how the story of Jesus' baptism in Saint Mark's Gospel, helps Christians to understand why Baptism is important in the church today. Use infant and Believer's Baptism

1248 words - 5 pages this essay, I will look at the main features contained within Jesus' Baptism and explain how they allow others to understand why Baptism is so important in our Church today.HistoryA sense of history gives everything an importance, baptism has been part of Christianity since the earliest days of the church. It has its roots in the old Jewish Religion. A sense of tradition gives authority and consistency to the Christian method. Baptism for Christians

Explain the pathophysiology for myocardial infarction and tissue plasminogen activator drug, relating the drug target to the compromised or diseas

1167 words - 5 pages to meet the demand of the cells resulting in necrosis. This is mainly due to blockage of the coronary artery by a thrombus as a result of atherosclerosis preventing blood flow to the heart muscles.5 Atherosclerosis is a condition where there is a build up of fatty deposits in the arteries causing it to narrow and harden.4,6 This process begins with damage to the endothelial lining of the artery, followed by the body’s inflammatory response

'Economics in the Business Environment'' Why is the structure of a market important if we wish to explain and predict the choices made by firms?

2253 words - 9 pages To understand why firms make the choices they do in the business environment we must understand the structure of the market which exists in competitive capitalism. It is important to be able to distinguish between types of markets to better understand how they behave in the real world.Why firms behave the way they do depends on a number of considerations, such as the number of buyers and sellers in market, and to what extent buyers being the

Similar Essays

Prescription Drug Overdose Essay

1091 words - 4 pages drug overdose deaths have increased by 33%. Overall New England was ranked 1st having the highest drug overdose rate. 55% of overdose victims are male, while the remaining 45% are female. 91% of victims are white. In Rhode Island (2012) 119 of 182 victims of overdose (65%), involved prescription drugs, alcohol, or other drugs. The highest death causing drugs include: Xanax (222), Oxycodone (175), Methadone (170), and Hydrocodone (125). The lowest

The Coorelation Between Drug Tolerance And The Environment

1239 words - 5 pages patterns of neuronal activity in both the amygdala and the hippocampus (6). The conclusions that are drawn from the previously mentioned observations suggest an additional tolerance caused by environmental cues. Such results can be applied to medical care and treatment. Within medical terminology, "drug overdose" may be a misnomer in many cases. An overdose may not only be the result of an alteration of the dosage. When ten drug addicts who had

Contingent Drug Tolerance Differential Tolerance To The Anticonvulsant,

640 words - 3 pages experience the effect of the drug on the performance. The propose of this experiment is to present more support for the drug-effect theory to simplifying that the development of tolerance subjects can have an effect of the drug when is repeatedly manifest, whereas there is no development of tolerance when it has not been repeatedly manifested. In this study, there are two experimental group (the before-and–after experimental design) of amydgala-kindle

The Effect Of Parents' Drug Use On Children

1752 words - 7 pages parents also need to explain the harmful effects of drugs and explain what they were doing was wrong. Children need to hear from their parents in order to understand the consequences and dangers of drugs (Grotter 26). On the other side of the issue, not all children will grow up to be bad parents or drug addicts. Sometimes, when a child grows up in an unhealthy environment of drugs and alcohol, it results in motivation for the child to be the