Explain The Forms Of Utilitarianism Essay

726 words - 3 pages

AS Religious Studies Revision: UtilitarianismAO1 Material: i.e. 'what goes in part a)?'What type of ethical theory is it?Teleological: it aims to bring about a greater good. It looks at what your ethical action is aimed at bringing about, rather than deontological ethics which focuses on the intrinsic rightness or wrongness of actions.Consequentialist: it looks at the consequences of actions, not the actions themselves. An action is deemed 'good' if it brings about good consequences.Relative: goodness of actions depend on the circumstances; there are no fixed moral principles.Naturalist: the goodness of an action is defined in terms of natural properties i.e. pleasure, something that occurs naturally.How does this ethical theory tell us to act? See Hamilton pages 66 - 85.Jeremy Bentham and Act Utilitarianism.Hedonistic: good actions are those that bring the most pleasure and humans are motivated by the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain.Principle of utility: 'an action is right if it produces the greatest pleasure for the greatest number.'Hedonic/Felicific Calculus: there are 7 criteria to be met for an action to be deemed good.Goodness of an action is judged by the amount of pleasure brought by the outcomes.John Stuart Mill and Rule Utilitarianism.Higher and lower pleasures: better to be a Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied.Acceptable for communities to establish fixed rules that benefit the majority. Rules must be followed even if they don't bring pleasure to the individual.Two-Rule Utilitarianism.Morality based on rules and customs is acceptable for most situations, but occasionally we will need to use utilitarian thinking, where we have to consider the consequences. Richard Hare talks about morality for archangels and proles.Preference Utilitarianism.This makes a distinction between pleasure and best interests or welfare. Some actions might be desirable, but they might not be in our best interests. An action is therefore good if it maximises our welfare.Ideal Utilitarianism.There are certain things that are intrinsically valuable (ideals) which we should promote through our actions. All of our actions should strive to have these ideals (e.g. justice, love) as their consequences. We should aim to maximise...

Find Another Essay On explain the forms of utilitarianism

Explain the relationship between Plato's Form of the good and the other Forms

1377 words - 6 pages world. This seems contradictory seeing that the world of the Form's is meant to be 'perfect.' It may be possible to question this as disease and death are both imperfections, it is logically impossible for there to be perfect forms of them.Plato acknowledges that if we need a Form of Beauty, for example, to explain why we find things beautiful, then we need another Form to explain why beauty itself is beautiful. This would lead to an infinite

The Flaw of Utilitarianism Essay

837 words - 3 pages Philosophers Bentham and James Mill developed an ethical theory, utilitarianism, proposing that all action should be directed toward achieving the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Utilitarians further argue that achieving the greatest happiness overall is not only the right thing to do for society but also moral. Although this theory is applicable in many situations, when one takes a closer look it is clear to see that

The Effect of Utilitarianism

1412 words - 6 pages who experienced near-death, or people who attained freedom after long periods of hardship and torture. These people would definitely view their lives, and those who went through the same experiences, in a different light. If we were to analyze Utilitarianism closely, we would realize that they do not put any values on human life. In the Utilitarian point of view, every human life is worth the same. No matter what the status of the entity. Even if

"The Ontological Argument": Explain the traditional forms of the ontological argument put forward by Anselm and Descartes

1584 words - 6 pages a) Explain the traditional forms of the ontological argument put forward by Anselm and Descartes. (33 marks)The ontological argument is a deductive a priori argument that attempts to prove God's existence from logical reasoning. The first and best known ontological argument was proposed by St Anselm (Archbishop of Canterbury) in his writings 'Proslogion', however since then variations have been developed by other philosophers such as Rene

The Flaws of Act-Utilitarianism

1775 words - 7 pages In this paper I will argue that John Stuart Mill, the presenter of the most compelling theory of act-utilitarianism (AU), ultimately falls short in addressing the moral complexities which factor into man’s virtues and its effect on his motives for certain actions. John Stuart Mill’s core arguments follow and contrast many theories established by Jeremy Bentham. Combining the idea of consequentialism, that consequences of actions are the

Democracy Outweighs The Other Forms of Goverment

1552 words - 6 pages in hand, nevertheless, democracy is not the vilest form of government because it provides better governance, protects individual liberty and rests sovereignty with the people. Firstly, democracy has proven to provide good governance i.e. efficient management of public affairs and resources compared to all other forms of governments. This is due to a mechanism of checks and balances and regular elections. There is a famous saying by Lord Acton

The Different Forms of Psychometric Tests

1896 words - 8 pages The Different Forms of Psychometric Tests Describe the different forms of Psychometric tests commonly used by employers to assist in employee selection and comment on the advantages and disadvantages of their use. Since the beginning of civilization, employers have testing prospective workers in order to select suitable candidates. Original tests would have been a rigidly controlled standardized system of

Two Forms of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle

1937 words - 8 pages Various theories of quantum gravity predict the existence of a minimum length scale, which leads to the modification of the standard uncertainty principle to the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP). In this paper, we study two forms of the GUP and calculate their implications on the energy of the harmonic oscillator and the Hydrogen atom more accurately than previous studies. In addition, we show how the GUP modifies the Lorentz force law

Explain the Main difference between Act and Rule Utilitarianism (it can also be used to explain the main difference between Bentham and Mill)

2697 words - 11 pages greatest happiness, so that one time lying is the morally correct action. This forms the greatest differentiating aspect to Act and Rule Utilitarianism. Where an act utilitarian looks at the results of an individual action in order to assess whether it is right or wrong, the Rule utilitarian follows general rules and principles.Rule Utilitarianism is based on the same hedonist basis as Act Utilitarianism, that is to say that they are both formed on

Can Utilitarianism meet the objections of its critics?

1848 words - 7 pages "Man does not strive after happiness;only the Englishman does."F. Nietzsche, "The Twilight of the Idols".Since its foundation by J. Bentham in the late 18th century and its further development by J.S. Mill, H. Sidgwick and several other philosophers, utilitarianism has been one of the most controversial moral theories.The theory's underlying idea is, that only such acts are right which produce and maximise happiness as their outcome, in other

The Idea of Utilitarianism According to Jeremy Bentham

965 words - 4 pages Utilitarianism is a moral calculus – dependent upon a cost-benefit analysis – whose function is to maximize utility, which determines right from wrong. Jeremy Bentham, who argued, that the highest principle of morality is to maximize happiness, founded the doctrine; hence, according to him, the right thing to do is anything that maximizes utility. Moreover, Bentham contended against the opponents of the principle of utility that every moral

Similar Essays

Explain The Main Forms Of Utilitarianism

989 words - 4 pages Carys Jones 26th March 2014EXPLAIN THE MAIN PRINCIPLES OF CLASSICAL FORMS OF UTILITARIANISMUtilitarianism is the idea that the greatest good for the greatest number, so the action that causes the most number of people, pleasure or happiness. It is a teleological theory of ethics, as it is more concerned with the outcome rather than the act. It is also relative and subjective. Utilitarianism is a consequentialist theory as it decides whether an

Explain Bentham’s Account Of Utilitarianism Essay

1766 words - 7 pages society to become increasingly privatised. Industrialised societies reinforce the suitability of the nuclear family through such methods as 'the cereal packet family' and laws (most family based laws are orientated around the nuclear family).Additionally, postmodern Britain although nuclear families are the dominate family structure type there are other forms, namely:Boomerang families are an evolution of the nuclear family, whereas nuclear families

Explain The Criticisms Of Plato's Theory Of The Forms.

1605 words - 6 pages , Aristotle's criticism that these ideal forms do not have to exist independently from this material world is valid. But he does not give us a reason why it is impossible for them to be self-evident or explain to us how they could exist in this world. This causes the criticisms to be less valid in my view as there is no significant reason for Plato's theory to be untrue.Likewise with the second criticism about how there cannot be an ideal form of

Utilitarianism: Founding Fathers, Strengths And Weaknesses Of Act Utilitarianism And Rule Utilitarianism, Other Forms Of Utilitarianism, And Recent Philosophers

1528 words - 6 pages are harmonized with some major flaws. I will discuss the founding fathers of utilitarianism, the strengths and weaknesses of act-utilitarianism and rule-utilitarianism, other forms of utilitarianism, and recent philosophers of this school of thought.This idea of the greatest good for the greatest number was developed by Jeremy Bentham. Although the ides of utilitarianism is often traced back to and credited to Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill