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Explain The Main Features Of Darius 1 Reign.

1023 words - 4 pages

The main features of Darius 1 reign were:Neutralizing early revoltsMilitary campaignsAdministration of the EmpireBuilding projectsNeutralizing early revoltsIn 522 BC when Darius gained the throne he was faced by major revolts throughout his empire. Sources tell us that the empire was relatively content under the rule of Bardiya, as much of the empire was benefited by tax, military, and religious reforms. In little under a year, Darius was able to quell all the revolts which existed in almost every province of the empire. Darius was merciful to defeated provinces, but thoroughly punished any captured rebel leader, most commonly with death. He deployed his military forces in a well-coordinated and well-timed fashion. This eventually brought peace to the empire and undisputed power to Darius. The revolts were not well-coordinated and Jennifer Lawless suggests that this meant the various peoples wanted to break away from Persian rule rather than create another "Great King". Darius tells of how he quelled these revolts in the Behistan inscription, he gives considerable detail about the defeat of these rebellions which lay down the rules for any other province considering to revolt, using scare tactics.Military campaignsAfter crushing the various early revolts Darius began his expansion program. Campaigns to the east confirmed gains probably made by Cyrus the Great and added large sections of the northern Indian subcontinent to the list of Persian-controlled provinces. There is some controversy concerning India, as it is not mentioned on the Behistan inscription as a province under the control of the Persian Empire, but is mentioned on an inscription at Persepolis on a statue of Darius.About 517 BC a Persian force under Otanes captured the Greek Island of Samos, with Lesbos and Chios accepting Persian rule. In approximately 516 BC Darius moved against the Hellespont as a first step toward an attack on the Scythians along the western and northern shores of the Black Sea. George Grote suggests the real strategic purpose behind this move probably was to disrupt and if possible to interrupt Greek trade with the Black Sea area, which supplied much grain to Greece. Darius went into Europe for the first time and campaigned with comparatively little success.Meanwhile, sometime after 513 BC Persian forces captured the Greek islands of Lemnos and Imbros. In approximately 499 the Ionian Greek cities on the west coast of Asia Minor revolted against Persian rule. At first the rebellion prospered even though it only received limited assistance from the Athenians. Military efforts continued for a few years until 494 BC when Persia was successful. After the revolt Persia replaced many of the tyrants with a form of democracy.By 491 BC Persian control of the Aegean was firm after the capture of Thasos and Macedonia after a campaign led by Mardonius.In 490 BC Persia invaded to Greece that led to the great defeat at Marathon. Persia was forced to retreat. Preparations...

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