Pharmacogenomics is the study of variation of humans genomes and how they are affected by a response to medications, due to heredity, that would be tailor-made to adapt to a person or population genetic make up to lessen drug caused morbidity. Pharmacogenetics, which is an older term, was constructed from the words pharmacology and genetics, which now indicates the intersections of pharmaceuticals and genetics. The vision of pharmacogenomics offer a safer and more effective drugs, where more persons and populations use drug therapies which will increase he influence of drug-development clinical trials and products used in clinical practice. (Mordini 2004) Patient’s selection must be evidence base in the testing of pharmacogenomics in order to avoid genetic profiling, discrimination, stigmatization or distributive injustice. The testing of pharmacogenomics supplies information that could assist with the decision of treatment options for patients. Physician cannot influence patients decisions based on their own opinions. (Ndegwa 2007)
Aside from ethical issues there are also social and legal issues. Social issues form pharmacogenomics testing could possible lead to unfair treatment or undesirable outcome such as health discrepancy, due to medical cover compared to others. Legal issues include how these pharmacogenomics affect is being translated into practice. Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Acted passed in 2008 protects Americans from discrimination on the basis of genetic information for health insurance and employment purposes. Along with these three issues there are also economic issues that compare whether the person would take full responsibility for billing of the pharmacogenomics testing or if the insurance companies take care of some or the entire bill if the pricing of this testing and drugs was to increase. (Paige 2011) Pharmacogenomics is used to assist in the improvement of drug discovery and drug development; in numerous of ways two in which are to develop new drugs that will overcome drug resistance or new drugs that will target the optimization of drugs metabolism, and pharmacokinetics to decrease discrepancies in drug ranks. (Lee 2009)
The pharmacogenomics topic that is presented will be Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) along with the molecule of assistance and the gene that it targeted Serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) and 5-HYYLPR. 5-HTTLPR was also associated with lack of response to SSRI in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder patients with or without comorbid tic disorders.
The physician who first identified that OCD was Sigmund Freud, in which he said that it was a result from unconscious metal and physical conflicts. Freud was Austrian born in the mid 1850’s and also physician and neurologist who was considered the founder of psychoanalysis.
Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder of the brain and behavior. This disorder can lead to obsession that can cause a person to perform an...