Philosophical Materialism is a belief that existence can be explained purely in terms of matter, without the inclusion of consciousness or spirit. Everything in the universe is matter only, and that there is no spiritual or intellectual reality. Materialism is based on the concept that the universe is a material dimension and that all phenomena in the universe are strictly the result of the material properties and interactions.
Materialism claims that the world is knowable. Through science we have been able to get a lot of knowledge of some of the things we didn’t even know existed. According to materialistic theory mind aren’t enough to explain the reality. Reality is what we see and observe in the material things around us. Materialistic don’t believe in God (Spirituality). They say the way we gain more knowledge is by doing experiments, verifying the theories and explore the world.
Epicurus says that there are three criteria of truth: sensations, preconceptions, and feelings. A sensation gives us information about external world and can test the judgment based upon sensations against further sensations. Epicurus says that all sensations give us information about the world, but that sensation itself is never in error, since sensation is purely passive mechanical reception of images and the like by sense organs, and the sense themselves do not make judgments “that” world is this way or that. Instead error enters in when we make judgment about the world based upon the information received through the senses. Epicurus said that in order to make judgments about the world, we must already be in possession of certain basic concepts, which stand in need of no further proof or definition, on pain of entering into an infinite regress.
According to the philosopher Lucretius, matter, this is made up of atoms and empty spaces is what the whole universe is made up of, because of the empty spaces between different world atoms move freely in the universe and atoms collide with each other, comes together and they form matter(material objects). Lucretius also claims that humans are made of atoms, and when we die our soul gets free and turns into atoms. Atoms are never created and never destroyed therefore those atoms go back into the empty spaces of universe collide with each other again and make another living thing.
Epicurus is one of the first philosophers to put forward an indentify theory; the mind is identified as an organ that resides in the chest. His point was that the mind is something bodily because of its ability to interact with the body. Materialistic believe that conscious and ideas does not exist, or even if they do they are atoms, then why do people look at things differently? For example a glass half filled with water may seem half empty to some people but half full to others. This shows that perception of reality differs from person to person. All human minds are made up atoms, but we still think different...