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Exploring How Self Efficacy Is Shaping Prescribing Activity Of Pharmacists In Alberta

1944 words - 8 pages

Introduction
Pharmacists have training and expertise in medication therapy as well as patient care capabilities to assess and respond to patients’ health care and drug-related needs. Pharmacists are important members of the health care team. Pharmacists are well accepted by general people as healthcare personnel who provide knowledge about medication to patient (Perepelkin, 2011) but they also acquire knowledge and training to asses and respond to patients’ healthcare and drug related need. So prescribing is a logical extended role of pharmacist. It is assumed that medicine and dentistry professions dominate the prescribing activity but some other health care professionals such as ...view middle of the document...

They mentioned in the prescribing model for pharmacist in Alberta that pharmacist can adapt a prescription, prescribe in emergency and initiate a new therapy and the third situation requires additional prescribing authorization (APA) from the Alberta College of Pharmacists (ACP) following a successful application. Research on supplementary prescribing of pharmacists in United Kingdom reported diverse benefits of prescribing, such as enhanced patient care, optimum use of skills and increased self-confidence, job satisfaction and patient satisfaction (Warchal, Brown, Tomlin & Portlock 2006). Pharmacists becoming eligible to prescribe means they are taking over an increased proportion of risk and liability. Lack of confidence was found as an important factor affecting pharmacists’ decision of applying for APA and adoption of prescribing in pharmacy practice (Charrois, Rosenthal & Tsuyuki, 2012). Though placed in suitable position to prescribe specially in hospital and institutional setting, many pharmacists have not applied for APA and this resulted in slower adoption of prescribing by pharmacist than was expected by ACP (Hutchison, Lindblad, Guirguis, Cooney & Rodway, 2012).
Bandura (1994) proposed that self-efficacy is one of the most important prerequisites to adopt or change behaviour because it affects how much effort is devoted in a given task and what level of performance is achieved. He defined self-efficacy as the confidence a person feels to perform a particular task by overcoming the barriers to perform that behaviour and it impacts the tasks employees choose to learn and the goals they set for themselves. Self-efficacy plays an important role by affecting employees’ level of effort and determination while learning difficult tasks (Lunenburg, 2011). But to date there is limited research to understand health care professionals’ self-efficacy belief.
The objective of prescribing by pharmacist is to use of pharmacists’ expertise and knowledge expansively to ensure improved health services to Canadians. Prescribing is comparatively a new professional task for pharmacists and the adoption rate of APA is lower than expected (Charrois, Rosenthal & Tsuyuki, 2012). Although there are several research studies conducted on the adoption and outcome of prescribing by pharmacists (Al Hamarneh, Charrois, Lewanczuk, Tsuyuki 2012, McKinnon, Jorgenson 2009, Makowsky, Guirguis, Hughes, Sadowski, and Yuksel, 2013), related regulatory changes (MacLeod-Glover 2011), insights or perceptions of different stakeholders and requisite education to establish this new paradigm of health care practice ( Pojskic, MacKeigan, Boon, and Austin, 2014, Henrich, Joshi, Grindrod, Lynd and Marra, 2011), there is inadequate exploration of actual prescribing adoption process. Furthermore, it is unknown what factors are affecting pharmacists’ self-efficacy to prescribe and ways to improve self-efficacy belief to adopt prescribing by pharmacists. So it is significant to...

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