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Exploring Why The Cold War In Europe And Asia Got More Serious Between 1960 And 1964

2318 words - 9 pages

Exploring Why the Cold War in Europe and Asia got More Serious Between 1960 and 1964

Introduction

The term "Cold War" is broadly described as a state of permanent
hostility between two powers which never erupts into armed
confrontation or "hot war". Current historiography recognises the term
"Cold War" as the conflict between the United States of America and
Union of Soviet Union from 1945 until 1989. The Cold War is based on
political and economic issues between sides. The Cold War was
exacerbated by propaganda, covert activity by intelligence agencies
and economic sanctions. It intensified at times of conflict anywhere
in the world.

Two superpowers emerged; the United States of America took the role to
lead the West while the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics took the
position to lead the East. All elements of war were present at all
times; both introducing improved tactics and weaponry as the war
progressed. During this period both the West and the East went to
great lengths to gain information about one another. As suspicion rose
constantly as did the threat.

Europe

While American thinkers had guessed the USSR would not have nuclear
weapons until the mid-1950s the first Soviet bomb was detonated on
August 9, 1949, shocking the entire world.

Both governments devoted massive amounts of resources to increasing
the quality and quantity if their nuclear arsenal. Both nations
quickly began work on hydrogen bombs and the United States detonated
the first such device on November 1, 1952. Again the Soviets surprised
the Americans exploding a superior device the next August. The Soviet
H-bomb was almost completely a product of domestic research.

The first step in this arms race was taken by President Eisenhower of
the USA who followed Truman as president in 1953. Eisenhower wanted to
keep American taxes low while making their economy strong; he also
wanted powerful defences against the Soviet Union. Even so, the
Americans made more weapons than were needed to deter the Soviet
Union. This was partly because they over estimated the strength of
their opponents. For example in 1955 the soviet air force put on an
air show to display their new B-4 Bomber, capable of carrying nuclear
weapons to the USA. As only 10 Bombers had been built, and as the
soviets wanted to impress all their foreign observers, the pilots were
told to fly in a wide open circle and to pass over the air show a
second time, making it seem though there were 20 B-4 Bombers. Worried
that there would be a bomber gap between the American and Soviet air
forces, Eisenhower ordered twice as many of a new American bomber, the
B-52, to be built. Delivery methods, such as the bomber fleets, were
also expanded. The United States began with a considerable lead in
this area, but the widespread introduction of jet...

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