“Explosive weapons have a high capacity to damage the social and economic infrastructure upon which civilian populations rely. The destruction of housing, power supplies, water and sanitation systems, health facilities, schools, markets, roads and transport links, and energy infrastructure present direct humanitarian problems, deplete local and national capacity for production and growth, and necessitate high levels of reconstruction expenditure, diverting scarce resources from investments necessary to achieving developmental targets such as the Millennium Development Goals. Explosive weapons may be used to impair the functioning of such infrastructure in an effort to undermine social and community level interactions and challenge the credibility of the state as a guarantor of public services and human security.”8
Law and order, stability and peaceful environment are obtained in a State when a State is able to establish total control and authority. An IED explosion, or a scare about the presence or probable occurrence of both can have negative impacts and behavioral change in the Civilian population which will lead to collapse in the entire political hierarchy if the situation is not controlled smartly.
8 Richard Moyes, Director of Policy and Research, Landmine Action
Injury Patterns and Trauma Care
Multiple penetrating splinter wounds were the most common pattern of injury in the blasts. Splinters included round balls of different sizes, mostly blemished and stained, causing various entry and exit wounds. The security personnel, putting on helmets and bulletproof jackets, received splinter injuries to the limbs, groin, neck, lateral torso, and maxillofacial regions, despite adequate protection.
The blast wave causes the lungs to collapse, skin to mottle, clothes to catch fire, hair to burn, and the airway to choke
The majority of the survivors had burns on various parts of the body either due to direct effects of the blast or the secondary ignition of vehicles. Partial and mostly full thickness
The sound of the massive blasts creates deafness due to perforated eardrums.
The blasts from IEDS and attacks creates intense trauma. The trauma caused is not only physical but also psychological with causalities having types of nervous disorders labeled “Shell-Shock”.
Trauma Care Management not only deals with the treatment of causalities but starts from transporting the injured people from the site of attack to hospital, Pre-hospitalization analysis and determining the nature of injury to classify on the basis of priority and proceeding cases as per the analysis.
Trauma Care also involves setting up communication centers to aid families about the information and details of their near and dear ones who were injured or were present in the area during the blasts. Victim Assistance is required post the treatment of physical injuries as the Long term psychological effects are prominent.