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Extreme Vote In France And Globalization

3108 words - 12 pages

Extreme vote in France and globalizationIntroduction and hypothesisIn my essay I would like to deal with a new form of popular protest in France, i.e. voting for extreme parties (far-right and far-left parties). I will argue in my essay that the new importance of these parties is mainly due to globalization and its characteristics. This topic is relevant because for fifteen years this revival of the extremes has raised a lot of questions in the French Medias and in the sphere of the French intellectuals. I will combine here this topic with the thematic of our course, i.e. globalization and identity:Are individuals who vote for extreme parties in France expressing a rejection of globalization?After the first round of the 2012 presidential elections in France, the FN (Le Front National, the main french nationalist party) confirms the success that the polls had announced before. With about 18% of the votes in the first round FN became the 3rd political party of France (Le Monde, 2012).In contrast to that, the far-left confirms its strong position: the FG (Le Front de Gauche) became the 4th political party of France with 11% of votes (Le Monde, 2012).The high score of the extreme right is not a new phenomenon nor an episodic one for twenty years. But the appearance of the far-left, caused by the economic and financial crisis of 2008, illustrates the revival of a radical left who disappeared from the French political system since the collapse of the USSR and the transition to a Post-Fordist economy in the 80s.Thus, this is how my hypothesis is formulated:The extreme vote is the mirror of a social cleavage in the French society between the "winners" and the "losers" of globalization, between those who benefit from it and those who bear the negative consequences and / or fears it arouses.Concepts of the essayI would like now to clarify the concepts used in this essay.I call these votes "extreme" because they support political formations located at the extremes of the political spectrum. I respect my duty of neutrality by providing this kind of definition.The concept of social cleavage expresses a reality and I am using here the definition of Bartolini and Mair (Bartolini and Mair, 1990). This definition contains three factors:First, an empirical factor which is a part of the real, the social: i.e. the socio-structural basis. This basis separates individuals with objective criteria (social class, income, wealth, location, religion etc ...).Secondly, a normative factor: i.e. the values​​, beliefs, symbolic, cognitive schemas, ideologies which were born and built around empirical evidence proving that this reality has been internalized by all the people (it is the basis of a cleavage). This is important because it helps to determine whether the empirical element (a person) is aware to form a group.Third, an organizational factor: institutions and organizations such as political parties, trade unions, etc... They develop interactions in a group...

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