Eysenck's Arousal Theory Of Introversion & Extraversion

1873 words - 7 pages

German psychologist Hans Eysenck’s Model of Nervous System Temperament links temperament traits, specifically introversion and extraversion to the Central Nervous System. Introverted people are typically quiet, reserved, and timid whereas extraverts are active, sociable, and outgoing (151). According to Eysenck, introverts have high levels of brain arousal, which is controlled by the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS). Therefore, introverts do not need to seek external arousal leading them to be more reserved. Contrastingly, he argues that extraverts have lower levels of brain arousal and therefore are more sensation seeking in order to make up for it. In this paper, I will aim to synthesize and summarize some of the research regarding introversion and extraversion and their link to the central nervous system and states of arousal. I will synthesize this information to support the idea that while introversion and extraversion are on some level linked to states of arousal, Eysenck’s arousal hypothesis is not alone sufficient to explain the biological differences between introverted and extraverted individuals and their behaviors as such.
Gerald Matthews, D. Roy Davies, and Jackie L. Lees conducted a series of three experiments to test this Eysenck’s arousal hypothesis of introversion and extraversion. The first of the experiments, which consisted of two parts (A and B) is most germane to this argument. According to Eysenck’s hypothesis, extraverts are low in arousal and therefore should seek stimulation in the morning. However, in accordance to Matthew’s experiment, the opposite actually happens. In part A of this experiment, the participants were 50 males and 50 females ranging in age from 18 to 36 with normal vision. They were tested for extraversion by the Sixteen Personality Questionnaire and were put into either the extraverted or introverted group and either a low arousal or high arousal group accordingly. The subjects were shown 540 single digits on a microcomputer. The subjects were to press a key when one of the 135 target digits was shown on the screen. Introverts who were low on arousal performed the worst while introverts high on arousal performed the best.
In part B of this experiment, the subjects were 20 males and 20 females aged 18-22. These 40 were the 20 most introverted and 20 most extraverted from a group of 60 when tested with the Eysenck Personality Inventory. The subjects were to press one of two keys when either a target or nontarget stimulus was presented. The results showed that there was no significant difference between introverts and extraverts. According to Matthews, Davies, and Lees, “the extraversion data were inconsistent with arousal-mediation theories of extraversion effects on performance” (158). In conclusion, differences in arousal are not strongly related to the cognitive processes associated with extraversion, and therefore, this experiment refutes Eysenck’s theory.
A study by Dirk Hagemann...

Find Another Essay On Eysenck's Arousal Theory of Introversion & Extraversion

Biological and Humanistic Approaches Personality Assessment

1906 words - 8 pages favors the biological approach or the humanistic approach.The biological approach to personality is that all traits can be subsumed within three personality dimensions. These dimensions are called extroversion-introversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism (Burger, 2007). The extraversion personality is considered to be outgoing and exhibits the trait of sociability. The extraversion personality is the one who one would find the life of the party

Personality Stability and Change in Trait Theories Of Allport and Eysenck

1128 words - 5 pages personality, which he called supertraits – extraversion/introversion (E) and neuroticism/stability (N). Later, he added another dimension, psychoticism/superego functioning (P), which maintained less defined. According to Eysenck, psychological disorders are found at the extremes of personalities, where neuroticism determines predisposition to anxiety, hysteria, depression, and obsessive-compulsive tendencies. Psychoticism, per Eysenck, relates

Personality: a Neurobiological Model of Extraversion

1093 words - 4 pages extraversion with general arousal level of the nervous system. Hans Eysenck proposed that the ascending reticulocortical activating system regulated arousal levels by opening and closing channels for incoming stimulation. J. Gray expounded on the physiology of extraversion through an animal model. The septohippocampal system regulates anxiety while septal-lateral hypothalamic and medial forebrain bundle influenced impulsivity. Studies have not fully

Applying Criminological Theory to Solve the Murder of Tigger

1297 words - 6 pages habits and eysenck's theory of extroversion-introversion. Journal of Research and Personality, 16(2), 139-146. Gundy-Yoder, A. V. (2007). Gender, parental attachment, delinquency: Revisitng hirschi's social bond theory. Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/rws_etd/document/get/ucin1172687526/inline Hirschi, T. (2002). Causes of delinquency . Transaction Publishers. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=VaRwAAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd

Human Traits: Cardinal Traits

841 words - 4 pages personality based upon just three universal trails: 1. Introversion/Extraversion: Introversion involves directing attention on inner experiences, while extraversion relates to focusing attention outward on other people and the environment. So, a person high in introversion might be quiet and reserved, while an individual high in extraversion might be sociable and outgoing. 2. Neuroticism/Emotional Stability: This dimension of Eysenck’s trait theory is

Biological Factors Can Predict Personality

2818 words - 12 pages reticular activating system (ARAS) found in the brain stem are thought to control the arousal. The reticulo-cortical circuit manages the cortical arousal produced by incoming stimuli and reticulo-limbic circuit controls arousal to emotional stimuli respectively (Engler, 2014). Eysenck proposed that the reticulo-cortical circuit is related to extraversion-introversion traits of the PEN model. An extravert’s ARAS provides much lower level of

How many traits are needed to adequately account for individual differences in personality? - Psychology - Essay

2710 words - 11 pages ). Personality and intelligence as predictors of academic achievement: A cross-sectional study from elementary to secondary school. Personality and individual differences, 42(3), 441-451. Lester, D. (1989). A neurotransmitter basis for Eysenck's theory of personality. Psychological Reports, 64(1), 189-190. Levonian, E. (1961). A statistical analysis of the 16 personality factor questionnaire. Educational and Psychological Measurement. Loehlin, J. C. (1992

The Trait Theory of Personality

2311 words - 9 pages introversion/extraversion. Five years later Eysenck added another factor; psychoticism (Buchanan, 2010, p. 73). According to Carnivez & Allen (2005), British born psychologist Raymond Cattell centred his studies on factor analysis. His work observed him meticulously reduce Allport’s list of traits to less than two hundred. Applying his factor analysis knowledge, Cattell developed the 16PF questionnaire in 1949. Now in its fifth edition, it is still

Cattell's Big Five Factors

1012 words - 4 pages Cattell's Big Five Factors Cattell’s Big Five Factors of Personality, Behavioral Genetics, and Evolutionary Personality Theory. Current Research Raymond Cattell (1905-present) designed the “Big five Factors of Personality”, in which five classifications are revealed. Big Five factors: #1 extraversion vs. introversion, #2 agreeableness vs. antagonism, #3 conscientiousness vs. undirected ness, #4 neuroticism vs. emotional stability, and

What Lies Beneath

901 words - 4 pages of human personality has broadened exponentially, and there have been many several theories that link our personalities together. Such theories include individual difference, human motivation, and the whole person. The Big Five-Factor model is under the individual difference theory(A. Pychyl, 2000). Looking deeper at the meanings of each of the five, we understand that each one is also associated with its opposite. Extraversion vs introversion

Theories of Personality

522 words - 2 pages to examine individual differences in a more consistent manner. Hans Eysenck and Raymond Cattell were distinguished for their contribution in developing several measurement oriented process to trait theory. They underlined the significance of factor analysis to recognize fundamental traits. Hans Eysenck proposed three main types of super traits namely Extraversion/Introversion, Neuroticism, and Psychoticism through his personality inventories

Similar Essays

Arousal Theory Of Causasion Essay

1712 words - 7 pages Arousal Theory of Causation Introduction The research done for this paper was conducted to explain the arousal theory and its relation to crime. The first section of research is to explain the arousal theory and the assumptions that can be concluded from the theory, as well as, explain the positivistic school of criminological thought. The second section is to tell observational support of the positivist school and describe studies done on

The Study Of Personality And Time Perception

1199 words - 5 pages personality, in which he used factor analysis to structure his beliefs.His theory is made of up of three core personality dimensions: Psychoticism, Neuroticism and Extraversion (Eysenck, 1970; Eynsenck and Eysenck, 1985, cited in Martin, Carlson, Buskist, 2009). These bipolar factors all have their opposites. Where Psychoticism is the opposite to self control, Extraversion is the opposite to Introversion, and Neuroticism is the opposite to Emotional

Differences Between The Extraverts And Introverts Of Hans Eysenck

1858 words - 7 pages - extraversion (the degree to which a person is withdrawn or open), neuroticism (the extent to which people control their feelings) and, psychoticism (the degree to which one is insensitive or detached). "Eysenck's factor theory of personality, which assumes three basic dimensions, extraversion - introversion, neuroticism and psychoticism". (Reber, 1995, p.274). Extraverts are seen as optimistic, impulsive and dynamic people. Introverts as shy

Social Desirability And The Manipulation Of Self Concepts. How The Pressures Of Others Can Contribute To A Shift In Self Image

1743 words - 7 pages People crave success. Kunda and Sanitioso (1989) stated that our self-concept is malleable, that the desire to be more like others is enough for us to make subtle changes to our self-concept. 102 university students were each assigned to one of two groups. Each group was informed that either extraversion or introversion was responsible for academic success by way of fictitious study. They were then asked to rate the strength of characteristics