This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Factors Increasing The Rate Of Hate Crimes

1331 words - 6 pages

Previous studies into the cause of hate crime offending have for the most part been cross-sectional in nature, emphasizing ecological factors associated with higher rates of offending. Lyons’ (2007) study into Chicago neighbourhoods along with Green et al.’s (1998) investigation into communities in New York argued persuasively that demographic change in an area, usually an influx of immigrants or an ethnic minority, is a crucial explanatory factor when investigating why certain regions experience more hate crimes than others. These studies are remarkably consistent in their findings; suggesting that many hate crimes result from group concerns, usually amongst a minority, about minority group ...view middle of the document...

An anecdotal example of this comes from a subject in Pinderhughes’ (1993) research on prejudice that informed researchers: “My father told me that [as a result of the new black mayor] they are going to fire all the white construction workers in the city and hire all black guys” (p. 489). Abrupt and drastic change in society can be perceived by a majority grouping as adversely affecting them. This can incite emotions of anger and perhaps calls for revenge (King, Deloughery and Asal, 2012).

Secondly, works on hate crime offending suggest that many hate crimes are prompted by an antecedent event, such as a terror attack (McDevitt, Levin, & Bennett, 2002) and hence are a form of retaliation. This proposition fits with two theoretical approaches that form the bulk of the present research on hate crimes namely, Black’s (1983) theory of crime as social control and Lickel et al.’s (2006) discussion of vicarious retribution.

Black’s (1983) theory of crime as social control posited that many criminal offenses were forms of “self help” defined as “the expression of a grievance by unilateral aggression such as personal violence or property destruction” (p. 34). Black depicted many crimes as fulfilling a desire for justice, particularly among those who cannot turn easily to law enforcement agencies, an example being a drug dealer whose supply was stolen. They may “take the law into their own hands” as it was to ensure that justice in some form is met. A salient proposition extending from Black’s work is the idea that parts of a population will rely on crime to vent a grievance when the law is less accessible to them. A small proportion of the population is willing to “take the law into their own hands” to achieve a sense of justice or otherwise attain a feeling of catharsis. Relative to this paper, members of groups may crave retaliation in the wake of a domestic terrorist attack. Although in some cases such as the suicide attacks in New York, the perpetrators cannot be punished, legally or otherwise. Suicide attacks are particularly important as the number of suicide attacks grew significantly in the past two decades, from an average of less than five a year in the 1980s to 180 a year in 2001-2005 (The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism figure 2, p.129). This scenario is minimally discussed in work following Black’s theory, although theory and research of a more psychological bent offers a related concept for thinking about reactions to terrorist attacks—vicarious retribution.

In their work on intergroup aggression, Lickel et al. (2006) highlighted the role of vicarious retribution, a form of aggression that transpires when

“A member of a group commits an act of aggression toward members of an out-group for an assault or provocation that had no personal consequences for him or her, but did harm a fellow in-group member” (Lickel et al., 2006, p. 372-373).

Such behavior is retributive as it expresses a grievance for a perceived wrong. It is...

Find Another Essay On Factors Increasing the Rate of Hate Crimes

The Views on Hate Crimes Essay

664 words - 3 pages Crimes are known to be one of the reasons to why laws and police forces were created. In the two readings about hate crimes, it will provide readers more insight on each writer’s opinions. The hatred and cruel intentions towards others can be frightening. With the comfort of safety and protection, people have become more expressive, but with the sense of caution. Having laws, gives us the strength to open up towards each other and, through the

A PROPOSAL FOR INCREASING THE RATE OF READING HABITS

1296 words - 6 pages Turkey still hasn’t settled. You might be saying that this is already known by everybody. Yes, I have nothing to say about it. What I would like to point out is the low rate of reading habits at METU, whose mission is to educate scientists. According to a research done with university students which are from METU, Gazi University, Bilkent University and Başkent University; among 803 students, only two of them choose reading as their pastime

Negative Impact of Hate Crimes in Canada

2072 words - 9 pages commits a crime/violent act. You can predict how an individual is going to act based on the type of verbal interaction her or she took part in. In addition to this, hate crimes on Canadian campuses have risen (Perry, 2011, p.321). Perry also concluded that factors such as: race, ethnicity, sexual orientation and religion all play factors in the perpetration of the hate crime against Canadian students (p.321). Hate crimes have always been a problem

Hate Crimes, Racism, and Prejudice Examined in The Museum of Tolerance

1103 words - 5 pages The Museum of Tolerance is a museum that examines hate-crimes around the world caused by racism and prejudice. The museum focuses mainly on the history of Holocaust, out of all hate crimes in the world. However, when digging through the museum, the Museum of Tolerance appeared to be biased in a way with their portrayal of many images. The formal title of the museum is the Museum of Tolerance. They chose this title, because they want to promote

Homosexual prejudices, homosexual targeted hate crimes, and the history of homosexuality

1271 words - 5 pages something that I believe that you are born with and can not be changed according to what a certain culture deems appropriate. In 1930 Sigmund Freud signed a statement declaring the punishment of homosexuals was an ? extreme violation of human rights? (1, pp. 395). Ever day hate crimes are committed against gays and lesbians because people fear what they do not understand. They do not understand how someone could be attracted to the same sex or why

Factors Influencing The Exchange Rate

649 words - 3 pages I.2.1 Factors influencing the exchange rate There are a several factors which can influence the exchange rate of a given country such as interest rate of a country, inflation rate and money supply. In some reason non-theoretical or non-economical factors can influence the exchange rate to appreciate or depreciate against the other currencies. 1. Inflation rate How price and inflation rate can affect the exchange rate can be explained by

Factors Affecting the Unemployment Rate

960 words - 4 pages decreased from the year 2003 to 2006. But then it sharply rose from the year 2007. This has been attributed to the recession which affected the united state of America from the year 2007 (Moffat). Technological changes In the last decade technology has been changing rapidly and in a very fast rate. As a result accomplishment of tasks and assignments has been faster and more efficient. This is mainly because the technologically efficient machines

To What Extent Can the Police Effectively Prevent Hate Crimes?

2615 words - 10 pages Standards were introduced in 2010 to improve investigation and prosecution (CPS, 2012). So far it has been successful with crime cases referred to the CPS steadily increasing and the number of cases charged also increasing (CPS, 2012). This shows that the police are better at recognizing and responding to hate crimes. However it is also noted that less than a third of racially or religiously motivated crimes result in court proceedings which

What is the relationship between fast food and the increasing rate of childhood obesity in the United States?

2398 words - 10 pages percent of children and adolescents are now overweight and the obesity rate among preschool aged children is increasing at an alarming speed (Childhood Obesity Facts). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Childhood obesity has more than doubled in children and quadrupled in adolescents in the past 30 years" (Childhood Obesity Facts). There are many factors that can result in an increased risk of being overweight. Genetics

What factors can affect rate of reaction?

819 words - 3 pages There are several factors which can affect the Rate of Reaction. These include:1) Temperature:At higher temperature, the particles have more kinetic energy. They move more rapidly through the solution, they collide more often and more vigorously, so the chance of a reaction increases. The time taken for a certain amount of collisions to occur decreases, so the overall time for the reaction to occur would also decrease. This will be counteracted

Investigating the factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis of submerged cotyledon (seed leaf) discs

5792 words - 23 pages not by increasing light intensityPhotosynthesis involves the production of oxygen, and the uptake of carbon dioxide. These can be used as a measure of the rate of photosynthesis.This experiment will be an investigation into the photosynthetic rate, the rate at which plants produce all their own organic substances (food) using only light energy and simple inorganic substances. The rate of photosynthesis is dependent on environmental factors

Similar Essays

From Aggression To Hate Crimes: The Factors Of Hatred

1211 words - 5 pages Crimes:The Factors of HatredStudies have established that most hate crimes are committed by single or small groups of young males unaffiliated with organized hate groups. Although reported hate crimes appear to be declining, there is evidence that hate group activity is increasing (Blazak, 2001). Hate crimes differ from other types of criminal offenses in several ways. First, a hate crime is not merely an assault against an individual but against

The Epidemic Of Hate Crimes In America

3664 words - 15 pages , caused by a group of African American teenagers who admitted to targeting the man due to his ethnicity. The emergence of biased crimes within this area has made it difficult for families to escape the influx of hate and poverty. Without proper reforms, hate will continue to spread throughout our entire American social structure. It is important to keep in mind that grievance and envy are significant factors in the spread of hate crime. The

Hate Crimes "The Reality Of It All"

1196 words - 5 pages ; some believe that it criminalizes thoughts and is an added punishment. In other words a crime is a crime and to me that assumption does not hold any weight. Two specific crimes that have been known as hate-crimes should be fuel enough to promote the idea of hate-crime laws. The first case is the James Byrd jr. and the other case is the Emmett Till case.Before one can talk about the severity of the two cases he/she should know exactly what a hate

Hate Crimes: Victims Of Discrimination Essay

722 words - 3 pages Hate Crimes: Victims of Discrimination Some people are trapped in body with features that are uncontrollable or brutally beaten because of the religion they were born into. Outcasts from society become victims of hate. Sound unfair? These are examples of social injustices, a modern term applied to old practices. The most recognizable forms of social injustices relate back to a central concept, discrimination. Hatred becomes the reason