Factors Involved For Growth In A Baby, Before And After Birth.

1094 words - 4 pages

There are several categories of factors, which can affect growth in babies, whilst in the womb and after they are born.It is true that growth can be directly affected, and I will describe how in the sections below.For a baby to be born small for gestational age (SGA), or to fail to develop in the womb, various factors might be named in causing this, some of which would include:Maternal factors:High blood pressureChronic kidney diseaseAdvanced diabetesHeart or respiratory diseaseMalnutrition, anemiaInfectionSubstance use (alcohol, drugs)Cigarette smokingFactors involving the uterus and placenta:Decreased blood flow in the uterus and placentaPlacental abruption (placenta detaches from the uterus)Placenta previa (placenta attaches low in the uterus)Infection in the tissues around the fetusFactors related to the developing baby (fetus):Multiple gestationInfectionBirth defectsChromosomal abnormalityFetal growth- Intrauterine growth retardationIUGR Intrauterine growth retardation associated with placental dysfunction tends to occur later in pregnancy. (2)The fetus does not receive enough oxygen or nutrients during pregnancy, overall body and organs growth is limited, and tissue and organ cells may not grow as large or as numerous. Utero-placental and umbilical blood flow can be important factors, as can the transfer of glucose through the placenta or the production of fetal insulin. This can occur with toxaemia of pregnancy (also called pre-eclampsia). It also is very common in twins, triplets and higher order multiples. In the case of multiples, it may be due to unequal placental separation or from blood vessel connections between twins. (9)Fatty acidsIn a very recent study of essential fatty acids at birth, showed that placental function is important in the transfer of some fatty acids from mother to fetus, and that these fatty acid levels were correlated with fetal growth and maturation in the premature infants they studied. (1)Excess consumption of alcoholThere is a continuum of effects that can result from maternal prenatal consumption of alcohol (Fetal alcohol syndrome) Babies can be born at low birth weight, birth length, and with a small head circumference resulting from this. (6) P243Drug takingWhen a mother is a drug addict, babies can also be born small and short, deprived of nutrients and oxygen and poisoined through this. The same can be said of cigarettes and the damage it does to placental blood vessels. (6) P243Malnutrition in mother or bad dietThere are many studies that have established a clinical link between fetal size and maternal nutrition. Godfrey et al found "...that placental and fetal size at birth are associated with the mother's intakes of carbohydrate and protein. (3)Crawford and Wynn in a series of papers showed a relationship between sub-optimal nutrition and reduced birthweight. They also indicated that mothers whose infants' birthweights wereIt is now apparent that maternal nutritional status, pre-conception body...

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