In the essay “The Art of Failure” by Malcolm Gladwell, describes two types of stress which effect on the human’s ability to work and in sports. Gladwell illustrates about choking and panicking and provide variety of examples to support his point such as the tennis match between Jana Novotna and Steffi Graf or the plane crash of John F. Kennedy. We all think that in stress we work better and it pushes us to further limits. Whereas, in the article author tells the negative effects of stress and explains, even people having sufficient practice in their profession they might someday fail either by choking or panicking.
Choking and panicking are completely different from each other. People panic when they think too little, however, people choke when they think too much. Gladwell writes, “Chocking is about loss of instinct. Panic is reversion of instinct. They look same, but they are worlds apart.” But the effects are same, they both effect on people’s ability and they fail.
In a big game, there is a lot of pressure on the players such as a big championship match. This leads to the increase level of pressure causing athletes to have an inferior performance. Under this type of pressure there is one type of negative behavior that occur; choking. Gladwell writes, “To choke or panic is considered to be as bad as to quit.” He describes the tennis match between Jana Novotna and Steffi Graf in 1993 where first Novotna was performing very well and she was winning the match however then she chokes. Gladwell writes, “She seemed like a different person - playing with the slow, cautious deliberation of a beginner – because, in a sense, she was a beginner again: she was relying on a learning system that she hadn’t used to hit serves and overhead forehands and volleys since she was first taught in tennis, as a child”. Choking is about thinking too much or overthinking. Jana Novotna faltered and lost the match because she started to think about her shots again. Gladwell pens, “We live in an age obsessed with success, with documenting the myriad ways by which talented people overcome challenges and obstacles. There is as much to be learned, though, from documenting the myriad ways in which talented people sometimes fail.”
Daniel Willingham a psychologist describes two types of learnings; explicit learning and implicit learning. In explicit learning people have given instructions what to do or how to do, rather than learning on their own. Psychologists have use a video game and told people whenever the x’s appear in the boxes on the screen push the key corresponding to it. According to Willingham, “if you’re told ahead of time about the pattern in which those x’s will appear, your reaction time in...