A fall is a lethal event that results from an amalgamation of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which predisposes an elderly person to the incident (Naqvi et al. 2009). The frequency of hospital admissions due to falls of older people in Australia, Canada, UK, and Northern Ireland range from 1.6 to 3.0 per 10 000 people (WHO 2012). The predominance of senior citizens’ falls in acute care settings varies widely and the danger of falling rises with escalating age or frailty. Despite the similar effects of falls on the youth or adults, the older people are more vulnerable to get injured than youngsters (Boltz et al. 2013). The fall hazards progresses with age and enormously affects one third of the older people with ravages of minimal injury to life threatening incapacities (Johnson et al. 2011). Falls of hospitalized older adults are one of the major challenging issues in terms of morbidity, mortality and decreased socialization (Swartzell et al. 2013). Detrimental impacts of fall may affect the patient’s family members, care providers, and the health organization emotionally as well as financially (Ang et al. 2011). Devastating problems, which resulted from falls, can certainly disturb the dignity and autonomy of an older person (Roe et al. 2009). Approximately 30% of falls result in physical injuries leading to extensive hospitalization, which directly touches hospital expenses by the increased health care utilization (Tzeng & Yin 2010). In Ireland, a cost-effective expenditure of older people falling was around €400 million a year (Duffy 2013). Subsequent injuries related to falls have a terrific impact on the nursing staff, which leads to impaired job satisfaction, supplementary workload and startling time consume. As the frontline of care, nurses can absolutely diminish the falls with available resources (Dykes et al. 2011). Therefore, person centred interventions play a pivotal role in the prevention phase of injurious falls of hospitalized older adults (Johnson et al. 2011).
For literature review, peer reviewed English articles searched electronically using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed and Cochrane databases. The author mainly searched for medical subject heading terms, both individual and combination of different concepts from 2009 to 2013. Key word searches conducted by using terms of nurse, nursing, nursing interventions, falls, fall prevention, patient’s safety, hospitals, medical wards and acute care setting. After the initial search, automatic daily alerts established to capture new publications using these search terms. Additionally, geriatric journals, Google citations and articles of relevant topics also searched to maximize the possible sources.
This literature review aims to evaluate the efficiency of fall risk assessments and various nursing interventions to reduce the incidence of falls in acute medical units. The key themes emerged from ...