Fallacy Journal Essay

2047 words - 8 pages

OutlineI. IntroductionII. The Fallaciesi. Appeal to Authorityii. Appeal to Emotioniii. Slippery Slopeiv. Begging the Questionv. Common Beliefvi. Appeal to Ignorancevii. Two Wrongsviii. Appeal to PityIII. ConclusionIV. ReferencesIntroductionWhen thinking in terms of critical thinking, a fallacy is described as an incorrect pattern of reasoning, an unsound argument, a method of persuasion, and is used intentionally and unintentionally. A fallacy can also be defined as a form of argument that seems or appears or is perceived. It only relates to the pattern of thinking or argumentation that leads to the conclusion. The conclusion may be true even if the argument is fallacious.Fallacies are inaccurate notions that can weaken a writer's argument and reduce his credibility. Readers need to be critical in determining what points they accept and should challenge ideas that appear logically flawed to them. A system of reasoning with reference to deductive certainty and inductive probability can point readers to a reasonable position.Writers need to be aware of fallacious reasoning and should make deliberate attempts to eliminate fallacious statements or expressions that lean towards fallacies if they are to truly contribute to the development of literary works. Writers can reduce the possibility of fallacies in their arguments if they follow a structure like the Toulmin Method in which the claim is made, reasoning or evidence is provided to support the claim, the warrant or connection is made between the reason and the claim and the grounds for supporting the claim are provided. The writer will also address refutation or opposing viewpoints, provide his objections against that refuting argument and include a rebuttal that should seek to dispel doubt regarding the point that he wishes to promote in the reader's mind.In this paper Team A will present ten fallacies from print, visual, or sound media, explaining fallacies that they contain, and explain why the Team thinks the fallacy was committed.The Fallacies"But don't be too quick to blame pill-happy pediatricians. Turns out that parents continue to push for antibiotic prescriptions even when kids don't need them. In a 2002 survey, doctors admitted prescribing antibiotics 65 percent of the time if they thought parents expected them, but only 12 percent if they felt parents didn't. Not only does overprescription of antibiotics help set the stage for antibiotic resistance, it may also increase your child's risk of certain chronic illnesses: Babies who are treated with just one course of antibiotics before their first birthday are twice as likely to develop asthma, according to one recent study."The above extract from the Parenting Section of Redbook magazine is, in our view, an example of Appeal to Authority. Although it is common for parents to insist on having physicians prescribe medication of some sort to an ailing child, the responsibility for administering drugs rests with the professional. It is remiss...

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