Fallacy Summary And Application Essay

1061 words - 4 pages

Anytime a television is turned on, a radio program is listened to, or a debate is being carried out, there will always be an instance of some sort of logical fallacy. It is not always the intent of the speaker to be "lying" but more so to be persuasive. A logical fallacy is a reasoning error. There are several different types of fallacies but they can be split up into two different groups: fallacies of relevance and fallacies of insufficient evidence.Fallacies of relevance are instances where an irrelevant assumption is used to defend a conclusion, whereas fallacies of insufficiency are examples of where the evidence presented in support of a claim is insufficient or weak (Fallacies).There are several types of fallacies that fall under both of these categories. The most common of these seems to be a personal attack, or Ad Hominem. Ad Hominem translated literally means "against the man." This argument criticizes ideas and facts by pointing out something about the person who had the idea rather than addressing the idea itself.According to Dr. Michael C. Labossiere, the author Fallacy Tutorial Pro 3.0; there are two forms of this fallacy as shown below:1. Person A makes claim X.2. Person B asserts that A makes claim X because it is in A's interest to claim X.3. Therefore claim X is false.1. Person A makes claim X.2. Person B makes an attack on A's circumstances.3. Therefore X is false.For example, if the marketing department was asking to spend a large amount of money on a new ad campaign and I did not think it was a good idea, I might say to my employee "of course you think that marketing serves a valuable purpose, your work is in marketing." The fact that my employee works in the marketing department is irrelevant, and does not conclude that it is the only reason he would think marketing is important. Though on the other hand, just because I am making an insulting remark towards someone does not necessarily mean that I am using ad hominem. As a company we have to be careful not to incorporate solutions based on fallacies of relevance into our decision-making processes. Thinking facts were false based on the drawing of irrelevant conclusions will force us to make wrong decisions and will be costly to our companies bottom line.Another example of this fallacy is an appeal to pity. This fallacy is one where the instigator takes the compassion of the person they are talking to and attempts to sway their judgment based on pity or guilt. This argument is as follows (Labossiere):1. P is presented, with the intent to create pity.2. Therefore claim C is true.An example of the appeal to pity in the work place would be when an employee is presenting a project and states "I hope you like the work that I have done on this project. It took me weeks to complete and I do not know what I would do if this project was rejected by you." The employee is asking for acceptance motivated by...

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