Fallacy Summary And Application Paper

1325 words - 5 pages

AbstractIn my paper I will identify and define three fallacies. I will explain their significance in relation to the Critical Thinking process and discuss their application to Decision - Making. Lastly, I will provide examples to illustrate each of the chosen fallacies.Fallacy Summary and Application PaperWhat do you see when you look at Begging the Question, Hasty Generalization, and Appealing to Emotion? When you initially look at these three categories they may not seem to have too much in common. However when you look deeper you will see that, in fact they are all different types of logical fallacies. Logical fallacies are errors of reasoning, errors that may be recognized and corrected by prudent thinkers (Downes, 1995).The following quote helps explain why logic is important to us in today's society. "Logic is not everything. But it is something--something which can be taught, something which can be learned, something which can help us in some degree to think more sensibly about the dangerous world in which we live (Fischer, 1970, p. 306)."Begging the Question is a type of fallacy that is used quite a bit. It is considered to be a fallacy of assuming when trying to prove something. One of the main things to remember with the use of this fallacy is that the term "Begging the Question" has a very specific meaning. This means that if someone was trying to prove something to us but he or she are not being specific and leave room for there to be more questions asked then there is a good chance this is an example of a begging the question fallacy. According to Whitman, "The fact that we believe pornography should be legal means that it is a valid form of free expression. And since it's free expression, it shouldn't be banned (Whitman, 2001)" is an example of begging the question.When you are confronted with something that could be a question of Begging the Question you need to think it through and see if what you are seeing or hearing is true. Or if it is just an interpretation of what the artist, speaker, or author wants you to believe when exposed to the form of media.An example of Begging the Question is an ad where there are a great deal of arms with fingers pointing to a bottle of Pepcid Complete and the arms are clothed in what appears to be medical jackets. Under the picture are the words "Pepcid's the #1 choice of pharmacists. Get the point?" This ad is implying that we get the point that Pepcid is the #1 choice of pharmacists because there are a bunch of pharmacists pointing at it.However, another bigger question could be are these people pharmacists or just a bunch of models since all show in the picture are a bunch or arms and hands.Hasty generalization is a fallacy that is committed when a person draws a conclusion about a population - based on a sample that is not large enough (Downes, 1995). Small samples will tend to be unrepresentative. The general idea is that small samples are less likely to contain numbers proportional to the...

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