Fallacy Summary And Application Paper Uop Css/330 Required Paper

1124 words - 4 pages

Fallacy Summary and Application PaperFallacies by definition are a false or mistaken idea's, or an often-plausible argument using false or invalid inference. There are two types of fallacies discussed in this paper. Logical fallacies of relevance are fallacies that occur because the premises are logically irrelevant to the conclusion. Logical fallacies of insufficient evidence are fallacies that occur because the premises, though logically relevant to the conclusion, fail to provide sufficient evidence to support the conclusion. The two wrongs make a right, red herring, and questionable cause fallacies will be defined. Each fallacy has a different effect on how we think critically. In addition, these fallacies general application towards decision-making varies between the different types.The two wrongs make a right fallacy requires an attempt to justify an apparently wrongful act, by citing another wrongful act. This type of fallacy is a logical fallacy. We as human beings use this fallacy religiously throughout our lives. As parents, we find ourselves continuously struggling to explain this fallacy to our children. A fine example of the two wrongs make a right fallacy is the following:Mom: "Why did you steal that candy from the store Justin?"Justin: "Jacob stole candy from the same store and didn't get caught."Mom: "That doesn't mean that you should steal from the store."Justin: "But Jacob didn't get caught, and I didn't either."Mom: "Two wrongs don't make a right; you will have to take the candy back."In situations like these, there always seems to be a lesson learned from the two wrongs makes a right fallacy. A mother is also never fooled by this one.The red herring fallacy, is where a person introduces or focuses on irrelevant information in order to distract his or her audience, then claims that the original issue has been resolved. This fallacy was named after a technique used to train English foxhounds. In order to train foxhounds, a sack of red smoked herrings or fish, was dragged across the trail of a fox. This would distract the foxhounds, and other tracking dogs, and divert them from whatever they were searching for. The red herring fallacy always involves changing or avoiding a subject. An example of the red herring fallacy is as follows:"Argument" for a tax cut: "You know, I've begun to think that there is some merit in the Republicans' tax cut plan. I suggest that you come up with something like it, because if we Democrats are going to survive as a party, we have got to show that we are as tough-minded as the Republicans, since that is what the public wants."From the example listed above, you can clearly see how the arguer was able to sway the listener towards a new subject.The Questionable Cause fallacy is where an arguer claims that one thing is caused by another. These claims are without any evidence or with insufficient evidence. Some other names for the questionable cause fallacy are post hoc ergo propter hoc, the mere...

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