As a diabetes research postdoc at the Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Tian-Shing Lee falsified data that went to print in 1989. In April of 1993, the University reviewed her work on diabetes and Protein Kinase C, while being funded by the National Eye Institute. Lee was determined to have fabricated the data by documenting time and data points that were not completed and removing outliers from her data sets (Office of Research Integrity, 1993).
In October of 1991, George L. King and Kang-Quan Hu, both of whom are co authors on the article, "Endothelin stimulates a sustained 1,2-diacylglycerol increase and protein kinase C activation in bovine aortic smooth muscle cells", asked that Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications retracts the paper. They call into question “flaws in methodological execution and data analysis” (King, 1991) and therefore, the validity of the tables and figures (King, 1991).
In the same year, Kirstie A. Saltsman, Ohashi and George L. King, reported corrections and retractions to the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. They amended five papers, in the categories, Medical Sciences and Biochemistry. One of these papers included was an article authored by Dr. Tian-Shing Lee. They claimed that the validity of three figures and tables contained data with flaws. They pointed out that the fabricated data is consistent with new findings of unpublished work by Inoguchi T, Shiba T and King GL (Saltsman, 1991).
The transgression occurred in 1989 when four papers were published in various journals throughout the year. All four papers have been retracted and contain statements to specify the extent of the falsification. In addition to the retraction, the Office of Research Integrity saw that Lee was debarred from receiving federal grants and contracts and is unable to serve on “Public Health Service Advisory Committees, Boards, or peer review groups” for five years (Office of Research Integrity, 1993). Lee has since,...