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Fascism. Essay

2064 words - 8 pages

FascismFascism is a form of counter-revolutionary politics that first arose inthe early part of the twentieth-century in Europe. It was a responseto the rapid social upheaval, the devastation of World War I, and theBolshevik Revolution. Fascism is a philosophy or a system ofgovernment the advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extremeright, typically through the merging of state and business leadership,together with an ideology of aggressive nationalism. Celebrating thenation or the race as an organic community surpassing all otherloyalties. This right-wing philosophy will even advocate violentaction to maintain this loyalty which is held in such high regards.Fascism approaches politics in two central areas, populist andelitist. Populist in that it seeks to activate "the people" as a wholeagainst perceived oppressors or enemies and to create a nation ofunity. The elitist approach treats as putting the people's will on oneselect group, or most often one supreme leader called El Duce, from whomall power proceeds downward. The two most recognized names that goalong with Fascism is Italy's Benito Mussolini and Germany's AdolfHitler.The philosophy of Fascism can be traced to the philosophers who arguethat the will is prior to and superior to the intellect or reason.George Sorel, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Georg Hegal are mainphilosophers who's beliefs and ideologies greatly influenced the shapingof Fascist theory. Sorel (1847-1922) was a French social philosopherwho had a major influence on Mussolini. Sorel believed that societiesnaturally became decadent and disorganized. This decay could only beslowed by the leadership of idealists who were willing to use violenceto obtain power. Nietzsche (1844-1900) theorized that there were twomoral codes: the ruling class ( master morality) and the oppressedclass (slave morality). Nietzsche believed the ancient empires weredeveloped from the master majority and the religious ideas and viewsgrew out the slave majority. The idea of the "overman" or supermanwhich symbolized man at his most creative and highest intellectualcapacity was brought about by Nietzsche as well. Hegal believed peopleshould sacrifice for the community. He thought war was also necessaryto unify the state, with peace bring nothing but a weak society. Hegalalso sustained that laws should be made by the corporate organization ofthe state.Fascism values human nature in a group for the benefit of thecommunity. The group as a whole is called the human will, which isruled by a select group or one leader, with the power being passed downfrom top to bottom. Fascism seeks to organize an organization led massmovement in an effort to capture the state power. When the power is inthe firm grip of the ruler, or IL Duce, the government will be used tocontrol the population and everything in it so the community will bebenefited.Fascism's ideal government would be fashioned around the good of thecommunity or nation. Everyone would work for the benefit of...

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